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17 votes

Are there any (land) hills/mountains with bases below sea level?

It's difficult, because to truly have a base below sea level the hill or mountain needs to be surrounded by locations below sea level on all sides. There aren't many spots on Earth's surface away ...
JeopardyTempest's user avatar
11 votes
Accepted

Is there a special name for along-course elevation profiles of rivers, and where you can you find them?

I guess there are multiple names, but I know it as the river's "long profile", and it is used in academic papers (one example here and a search in google scholar here). But you can find similar ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
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8 votes
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What's the difference between topography and orography?

Topography, in the eyes of Earth Scientists, is the study of the surface features of the Earth (or other planet), and includes all features of that surface, natural or artificial. From the Oxford ...
Dùn Caan's user avatar
  • 216
8 votes
Accepted

Public sources of topographical data of Earth?

This is an interesting and common question, so I'll try to give a good answer here, that I think is a good place, as well as GIS and Open Data SE. First, regarding the format, you will never find data ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
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8 votes

If ALL the ice melted, what percentage of the Earth's surface would be water?

As @gerrit commented, a precise calculation would need to incorporate a litospheric model to account for isostatic post-glacial rebound. But the "blurry approximation" you want, can be obtained based ...
Camilo Rada's user avatar
  • 17.7k
8 votes

Are there any (land) hills/mountains with bases below sea level?

Mauna Kea is a good example of this. It is generally considered as the tallest mountain on Earth. Even if its elevation is only 4205 meters above sea level, if you add the 6000 meters of its below sea ...
Jean-Marie Prival's user avatar
8 votes

What are these 'spine' land features on the banks of the Oder river?

River Groynes or Wing dams which help to maintain a navigable channel by increasing river scour along the channel for shipping, reducing the need for dredging. They may also help reduce ice jamming.
Siv's user avatar
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7 votes
Accepted

Old topographic maps of Odisha, India

The PCL Map Collection (University of Texas at Austin) is a huge online collection of maps. For India, they have a series from the U.S. Army Map Service which might be of interest, as it dates from ...
Jean-Marie Prival's user avatar
5 votes

Are there any (land) hills/mountains with bases below sea level?

I had made a mask of below sea level pixels of the Badwater Basin in this answer. The mask have a few small areas of black pixels (i.e., above sea level pixels) completely surrounded by white pixels (...
Jean-Marie Prival's user avatar
5 votes

Are there any (land) hills/mountains with bases below sea level?

In The Netherlands, after the construction of the Noordoostpolder, the former islands of Schokland and Urk became hills with bases below sea level, although Urk is only partially surrounded by land, ...
gerrit's user avatar
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5 votes

Are there any (land) hills/mountains with bases below sea level?

Following @JeopardyTempest's advice of rooting around in the Caspian Sea region, a notable feature is Mount Arlan 1,880m As a free-standing peak in the Caspian basin, it's a proper ultra-prominent ...
SE - stop firing the good guys's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

ETOPO1 region selection (in python)

It looks like you simply messed up the order of your min and max of the latitude. And you were looking at the wrong place (-44° instead of +44°). ...
smichel's user avatar
  • 380
4 votes

Are there any (land) hills/mountains with bases below sea level?

UPDATE: Ok I think I have found the best candidate, I'm amazed there actually is a true mountain completely surrounded by land below sea level, whose topographic prominence is therefore higher than ...
Ian's user avatar
  • 41
3 votes

Are there any (land) hills/mountains with bases below sea level?

The Aghzibir mud volcano (Azeri Wikipedia) appears to rise 375 feet above sea level, with its base about 85 feet below sea level, for a prominence of about 460 feet or about 140 meters. It is located ...
Michael Seifert's user avatar
3 votes

Calculation of river width in relation to contributing area

It's a function of flow volume rather than catchment area. The flow rate can be vary by an order of 10 to 100 for the same catchment area, https://www.google.com/search?q=average+river+width+based+on+...
bandybabboon's user avatar
  • 1,349
3 votes

What are the parallel horizontal lines on Google's satellite images?

The yellow east-west trending lines (except possibly one) are transcurrent faults associated with mid-ocean ridges. They divide strips of ocean floor produced by segments of the ridge. A mid-ocean ...
Spencer's user avatar
  • 3,638
3 votes

Complete missing outcrop problem

First step - draw a strike line where line A intersects the 400 m line. Second step - you know that the sandstone layer is of equal thickness and dip, so you can draw a parallel line at the place with ...
Gimelist's user avatar
  • 23.1k
3 votes

Why are the south, the west and the north of the Caspian sea lush but its east completely dry?

The mountains. The south has a steep relief, as well as the west. That means that there is much precipitation. The clouds throw every drop on these mountains, so almost nothing is left. The east is ...
User123's user avatar
  • 638
2 votes

What does the term "topology" mean in geology?

Topology is a study of deformable shapes and connectivity. Topography is a study of more or less non-deformable shapes. A coffee cup that has an intact handle and a donut with a hole in the middle are ...
David Hammen's user avatar
  • 23.7k
2 votes

Determining the paleoelevation of mountain ranges

Determining an uplift rate for rocks is not easy, but certain techniques will produce far more reliable results than others. There are also qualitative techniques that provide estimates so rough as to ...
Knob Scratcher's user avatar
2 votes

Are there any (land) hills/mountains with bases below sea level?

Death Valley in California, USA reaches a depth of 282 ft (86 m) below sea level. It contains a number of hills within the valley and mountains within 1 km of the valley. To meet your qualification, ...
MTA's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
Accepted

How to remove effect of topography on Air temperature in Excel?

Definitely an interesting question... You need to adjust your temperature data to a common elevation by using the lapse rate. The lapse rate can be determined as the temperature change over a ...
Thomas Perry's user avatar
1 vote

Does Everest have a topographic isolation?

The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum horizontal (great circle) distance to the nearest point of higher elevation. If this definition is altered so that the distance is to the nearest ...
Stevan V. Saban's user avatar
1 vote

What processes created these apparent topographical anomalies in North California?

The hill to the south in your map is called Palm Hill, probably because of its somewhat resemblance to a palm frond. It is an erosion-resistant hill or knoll that protrudes above the surrounding ...
BillDOe's user avatar
  • 2,187
1 vote

What processes created these apparent topographical anomalies in North California?

Tectonic processes and erosion. Well.....obviously: all surface features on our globe are caused, at base, by tectonics (uplift or subsidence) and erosion (knocking down or burying). To simplify: ...
Knob Scratcher's user avatar

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