# Tag Info

25

Some countries are still illegally using banned chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). "In 2018, high levels of banned chlorofluorocarbons were detected in the atmosphere that were eventually traced to China" Other reasons include climate change. The concentrations of the damaging substances in the atmosphere have leveled off since the protocol came into ...

21

Why is there still a hole in the ozone layer? To some extent, there most likely will always be an area over Antarctica with reduced stratospheric ozone content in late Southern Hemisphere winter. (I wrote "always". Read that as meaning for the next several millions of years.) The issues is how long that annual ozone hole exists, how large that ...

11

BrO and ClO significantly deplete ozone from the atmosphere. Researchers at Harvard University state: It is a remarkable fact that perhaps the most important observation coupling climate forcing to UV dosage levels at the surface at mid-latitudes is the observation of high (e.g. > 10 ppmv) water vapor and low temperatures (< 210 K) with the ...

8

According to the US Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center : Though in their data table they use the term "ppmv", they explain: The CO2 mixing ratios are reported as micromoles per mole (µmol/mol = ppmv) of dry air in the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) X85 mole fraction scale, traceable to primary standards at the Scripps Institution ...

8

To my eyes, the belt of Venus looks purple, which didn't makes sense to me, as the very short wavelength of purple light should have been scattered long before arriving back there. Then all made sense when I realized that if you mix blue and red light you get purple. You got that part right. Purple is not violet. Violet is a spectral color at the high ...

7

How can the air in the Earth's shadow scatter blue light if it doesn't get any direct illumination, and any indirect illumination getting back there should be VERY depleted in blue (i.e. mostly red light)? You're completely right. If you simulate light scattering only, you'll get exactly this result: a sandy-colored sky, with a bit redder belt of Venus, and ...

6

According to this Wikipedia entry Sprites occur at altitudes between 50 and 90km while the thunderstorms that create them generally top out below 16km so there is a minimum of more than 30km of height difference between a storm and any sprites it may spawn. So yes, at the right angle, you should be able to get a photograph of a storm's sprites from the ...

5

Classifying the presence of halogen oxides in the atmosphere as either natural, pollution or mixed bag, would result in mixed bag. Natural sources of halogen oxides include the ocean and volcanoes. In 1963, Duce et al, showed that bromine, like chlorine, was lost from the sea salt particles Volcanoes are another source of halogen oxides, Halogens ...

5

pretext: Seeing this question on the list of network questions caught my interest to the site. I agree with the arguments put forward in the answer by Fred, gravitating on the radical character of halogene oxides listed (e.g., BrO, ClO), where unpaired electrons contribute to reactivity to the specis. Some of them are created in situ under light radiation ...

5

Let's first consider the scenario in the absence of free radicals that can act as catalysts of $O_3$ destruction. In such scenario, added to the absence of UV radiation, the photolysis of ozone ($O_3 + UV → O_2 + O$) would not be possible. Therefore, the only way to destroy ozone would be by the reaction $O_3 + O· → 2 O_2$ But the lack of UV radiation ...

5

More than a year later, I'm doing a preliminary literature survey (noting that infrasound propagation is used in nuke test ban treaty verification): https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-8252(77)90063-0 W.L. Jones. Waves in the atmosphere; Atmospheric infrasound and gravity waves, their generation and propagation. (1977) https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246x....

4

Even in the exosphere, at 1800 deg centigrade, the only components of the Earth's atmosphere that can currently attain escape velocity are hydrogen (3 kg per sec), and and helium (next to nothing). The notion that the Earth's atmosphere would be stripped away by solar wind but for the protective magnetic shield, is a myth. So there is no 'characteristic time ...

3

As an expansion of Fred's anwer: Some of these oxides in question are well recognized and intentionally used. Thus some of them are used to desinfect water replacing elementary chlorine gas. They and their derivatives are not very stable (e.g., $\ce{ClO2}$, and $\ce{HClO}$) because during their decomposition organic matter degrades. Take, for example, ...

3

Regarding the Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) itself: The instrument's purpose is given as Ozone profile and total-column or gross profile of other species. Tracked species: BrO, NO2, O3, OClO, SO2 and aerosol That is rather inaccurate and misleading. GEMS does not track BrO or OClO (or ClO). It does track ozone, ...

2

The Martian nightglow comes from molecules in the atmosphere that react with solar radiation, carry it over to the night side, and give off the energy they gained as ultraviolet light as they free-form stable compounds. From https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/goddard/2020/mars-nightglow: The diagram explains the cause of Mars’ glowing nightside atmosphere. ...

2

Apparently it is possible for the ionosphere to influence the conditions in the lower atmosphere. The following are relatively recent results from a paper in 2009, and a summary and up-to-date state-of-the-art can be found in this paywalled, upcoming chapter in a book. As it turns out, at least in the arctic regions, the ionosphere can have quite an ...

2

foreword: Particles and Droplets Commonly, atmospheric particles can be considered as wet particles. E.g. when we talk about sulfate particles ($SO_4^{2-}$), these particles are actually droplets with dissolved sulfuric acid (or with a dissolved sulfate-cation compound). Mechanism involving $SO_2$ $SO_2$ is released as gas and it reacts to $SO_4^{2-}$ (...

2

The visible emissions from atomic oxygen take place between the fine structure levels of the ground state, and transitions between these states are not quantum-mechanically allowed by electric-dipole radiation. These "forbidden" transitions take much more time to occur, proceeding by magnetic dipole or electric-quadripole radiation. As a result the atom ...

1

Since this is the Earth Science stack exchange I assume you are talking about the Earth's exosphere, in which case the first issue to decide is how one defines the exosphere - there are several definitions. The lower boundary is straight forward - the thermosphere. However, the exosphere doesn't have a clearly defined upper boundary. You could argue that any ...

1

Short answer: Oxygen atoms (not oxygen molecules) cause the dominant red and green auroral emissions at high altitudes. Although there is more atomic $\ce{O}$ at higher altitudes than nitrogen, the key to understand the different colours is the excitation energy. Auroral particles with higher energies penetrate deeper down into the atmosphere causing higher ...

1

Mass at 21.9.1998 for Height 140 km -1000 km was $6.16\cdot10^{10} \mathrm{kg}$. Avg. Temperature; $725 \mathrm{K}$ Roughly the mass is divided as follows; $\mathrm{O}$, $\mathrm{O}_2$; $252 \cdot10^9 \mathrm{kg}$, “16” Molecule amount $N = 9.5\cdot10^{35}$, Heat capacity; $920 \mathrm{J}/(\mathrm{kg} \mathrm{K})$ $\mathrm{N}$, $\mathrm{N}_2$; \$364 \...

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