8

To my eyes, the belt of Venus looks purple, which didn't makes sense to me, as the very short wavelength of purple light should have been scattered long before arriving back there. Then all made sense when I realized that if you mix blue and red light you get purple. You got that part right. Purple is not violet. Violet is a spectral color at the high ...


5

More than a year later, I'm doing a preliminary literature survey (noting that infrasound propagation is used in nuke test ban treaty verification): https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-8252(77)90063-0 W.L. Jones. Waves in the atmosphere; Atmospheric infrasound and gravity waves, their generation and propagation. (1977) https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246x....


5

Let's first consider the scenario in the absence of free radicals that can act as catalysts of $O_3$ destruction. In such scenario, added to the absence of UV radiation, the photolysis of ozone ($O_3 + UV → O_2 + O$) would not be possible. Therefore, the only way to destroy ozone would be by the reaction $O_3 + O· → 2 O_2$ But the lack of UV radiation ...


4

According to the US Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center : Though in their data table they use the term "ppmv", they explain: The CO2 mixing ratios are reported as micromoles per mole (µmol/mol = ppmv) of dry air in the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) X85 mole fraction scale, traceable to primary standards at the Scripps Institution of ...


4

Even in the exosphere, at 1800 deg centigrade, the only components of the Earth's atmosphere that can currently attain escape velocity are hydrogen (3 kg per sec), and and helium (next to nothing). The notion that the Earth's atmosphere would be stripped away by solar wind but for the protective magnetic shield, is a myth. So there is no 'characteristic time ...


2

Apparently it is possible for the ionosphere to influence the conditions in the lower atmosphere. The following are relatively recent results from a paper in 2009, and a summary and up-to-date state-of-the-art can be found in this paywalled, upcoming chapter in a book. As it turns out, at least in the arctic regions, the ionosphere can have quite an ...


2

foreword: Particles and Droplets Commonly, atmospheric particles can be considered as wet particles. E.g. when we talk about sulfate particles ($SO_4^{2-}$), these particles are actually droplets with dissolved sulfuric acid (or with a dissolved sulfate-cation compound). Mechanism involving $SO_2$ $SO_2$ is released as gas and it reacts to $SO_4^{2-}$ (...


2

The visible emissions from atomic oxygen take place between the fine structure levels of the ground state, and transitions between these states are not quantum-mechanically allowed by electric-dipole radiation. These "forbidden" transitions take much more time to occur, proceeding by magnetic dipole or electric-quadripole radiation. As a result the atom ...


1

Since this is the Earth Science stack exchange I assume you are talking about the Earth's exosphere, in which case the first issue to decide is how one defines the exosphere - there are several definitions. The lower boundary is straight forward - the thermosphere. However, the exosphere doesn't have a clearly defined upper boundary. You could argue that any ...


1

Short answer: Oxygen atoms (not oxygen molecules) cause the dominant red and green auroral emissions at high altitudes. Although there is more atomic $\ce{O}$ at higher altitudes than nitrogen, the key to understand the different colours is the excitation energy. Auroral particles with higher energies penetrate deeper down into the atmosphere causing higher ...


1

Mass at 21.9.1998 for Height 140 km -1000 km was $6.16\cdot10^{10} \mathrm{kg}$. Avg. Temperature; $725 \mathrm{K}$ Roughly the mass is divided as follows; $\mathrm{O}$, $\mathrm{O}_2$; $252 \cdot10^9 \mathrm{kg}$, “16” Molecule amount $N = 9.5\cdot10^{35}$, Heat capacity; $920 \mathrm{J}/(\mathrm{kg} \mathrm{K})$ $\mathrm{N}$, $\mathrm{N}_2$; $364 \...


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