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First things first about Laki: it's in Iceland, which means its source is a combination of an ocean ridge and a mantle plume. The plume contribution means that the source composition is relatively undegassed (unlike the source for most mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs)!) and very basic, so contains relatively high concentrations of sulphur and other volatiles. ...


5

The majority of Earth's volcanoes occur in plate boundaries. These can be at spreading ridges (green dots on the map) where they are mostly underwater, but sometimes are above the water (such as in Iceland). They can also be on convergent margins, for example the Pacific ring of fire. A less common type of volcano is the intraplate volcano, which are ...


5

Terms: Intraplate volcanism - as the name suggests it is volcanism within the plates rather than at plate boundaries. These are also known as hotspots. Ocean island basalt (OIB) - is the basaltic rocks associated with intraplate volcanism. Relation between mid-ocean ridges and hotspots: Hotspot–ridge interaction produces a wide range of phenomena ...


5

Massive, caldera-forming eruptions like the one at Toba usually happen at large silicic systems. At such systems, we expect a surface uplift as the pressure builds in the magma reservoir. This can be measured by radar interferometry (InSAR). It is the case at Laguna del Maule volcano (Chile), were uplit up to 28 cm per year has been measured by InSAR (Feigl ...


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The largest volcanic eruption in human history was the Toba eruption on Sumatra about 75,000 years ago. There is still a huge lake, Lake Toba, in the crater. It dwarfed Thera, Krakatoa and Tambora. The Tambora eruption on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa occurred in 1815, and was the largest eruption in historical times, also dwarfing the other two. It ...


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This is a very good question. I just took a look at Erlund's paper and note that the geochemistry may say some interesting things about the origin of the magma. The authors were much more interested in the processes that affected the magma after it was formed and do not get into the origin of the magma very much. But the Mexican belt is a subduction zone ...


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Warning: not an igneous petrologist here, I'm more interested at what happens to magmas once they reach the surface than all the processes they might have encountered along the way... That being said, I think it has to do with the source of magmas, that is the mantle, which is itself mafic. Hence partial melting of the mantle generates mafic magmas. These ...


3

Yes, the situation is much more complex than you make out - the generation of melt is typically caused by partial melting of the mantle wedge located beneath the volcanic arc. This process is mainly affected by the trench geometry (flat or steeply dipping slab), the local geotherm, and volatile content (water, gases etc.) of the slab or subducted material. ...


3

I believe what you heard is “subtelluric” where telluric means “of the earth”.


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This term does not exist in volcanology. I can’t even think of a similar sounding term that can be misheard in the song, or misheard by the authors and then put in the song. It’s possible it exists in a different language but I am not familiar with any options. Sounds like your best bet would be to ask the band.


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I just came upon this paper by Tomascik et al. (1996). It does not answer directly your question, but I found it sufficiently relevant to post it here anyway. It's a study of coral colonization after emplacement of a lava flow. They found that only five years after emplacement of an andesitic lava flow from Gunung Api in 1988, large parts of this new ...


3

Andesitic lava is viscous, compared to basaltic lava. Andesitic lava flows at a rate of a few kilometers per hour, whereas basaltic lava can flow up to 10 km/h. Because of their viscosity, andesitic lavas "rarely extend beyound 8 km from their vents". Viscosity of andesite lava and its implications for possible drain-back processes in the 2011 eruption of ...


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Earthquakes associated with volcanism or volcanic rifting are typically small. They are caused by over-pressurized magma as it moves around and intrudes into brittle rocks. Sometimes, e.g., in Hawaii, you get earthquakes due to the gravitational sliding (e.g., the M6.9 earthquake in 2018 beneath Kilauea) as new eruption causes the volcano to grow in size (...


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It can be either an eruption from the top of an existing tube or deep surface cracks opening up existing magmatic systems. I believe, from what I've been hearing in the news, that in this case they are in fact fresh fractures, tectonic in origin, that have relieved local over burden and allowed magma to rise to the surface in areas that had previously been ...


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Intra = within/on the inside, so intraplate volcanism would be volcanism happening far from plate boundaries, usually hotspots. If you have trouble remembering intra- vs inter- remember international trade = trade from one nation to others, domestic trade would be intra-national trade even though no one uses that term.


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There is no "standard volcano" or "standard volcanic eruption". However, to perform the calculation you want to do, you could use the "typical" of "average" volcanic eruption. The characteristics of the "average" volcanic eruption can be found by calculating the average parameters of many volcanic eruptions. Such averages are not often reported, because ...


2

A quote from the summary of the book you listed: feeding torrents of freshwater into ocean basins that rapidly filled to present levels. The removal of the enormous weight of ice at high latitudes caused the crust to bounce back triggering earthquakes in Europe and North America and provoking an unprecedented volcanic outburst in Iceland. A giant ...


2

An eruption of the Yellowstone super volcano would cause agricultural disaster over a very large area. Its global effect would be significant, but not totally devastating. The resulting climate cooling could last up to a decade. The temporary climate shift could alter rainfall patterns, and, along with severe frosts, cause widespread crop losses and famine. ...


2

Basaltic magma (pictured above) rises for several basic reasons: 1) High temperature, low density liquid mass that is buoyant relative to surrounding rock and 2) Low crustal overburden stresses that allow upward movement of the underlying buoyant magma. Many magmas fail to break the surface if overburden keeps them "capped", but they can flow horizontally (...


2

10mm a year is a huge volume when you multiply with lithosphere thickness and length of the boundary, but you are right - it's more complex than this. Melting is caused by the interplay of temperature, pressure and chemical composition. In the case of subduction of oceanic crust, it's the mainly the water that have been incorporated in seafloor that lowers ...


2

As mentioned in a comment to another answer, the terms "basic" and "acid" in relation to igneous rocks are outdated and stem from an incomplete understanding of rock chemistry in the past. Better terms are "ultramafic", "mafic", "felsic", etc. As to your question - why aren't there "ultrafelsic" ...


2

I'm not well studied in this field, but I suspect that global average temperature by proxy for a single year is difficult to measure accurately. The 1991 cooling from Mt. Pinatubo happened recently enough that accurate measurements were made, though cooling is still somewhat difficult to pin down exactly due to other variation factors, sunspots being a ...


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based on Hunga Tonga, either within a decade or even before the volcano ever reaches the surface. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00338-019-01868-8 https://matangitonga.to/2019/12/09/Tonga-corals-hunga-volcano


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A fissure eruption typically occurs in basaltic terrain, where the magma is relatively fluid. Hawaii is a great example. Fissure eruptions occur along dilated fault zones. You show a picture of an andesitic unit. This magma has a much different chemistry than basalt, and is generally found in a different geologic terrain, like a convergent plate margin (...


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A fissure eruption can dislocate and cause faults in surrounding strata, but these strata are not plastic enough to be bent and folded in the short term. Strata can be bent and folded, but only if subjected to the sort of pressures exerted by plate movements at great depth over millions of years. Fissure eruptions can reach the surface and flow, but will not ...


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If I understand right, you want to know if we would notice signs of an eruption before the actual eruption? As is written in the article that you cite, the region is still very active, but being active doesn't mean that anything will happen any time soon. A volcano can be active for millions of years, without much happening. It just means that there is a ...


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