Podcast #128: We chat with Kent C Dodds about why he loves React and discuss what life was like in the dark days before Git. Listen now.
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I'm a volcanologist and I have worked on erupting volcanoes. First of all, volcanologists almost never actually wear those suits. Heat is almost never the hazard that matters in the situations in which we work. The hazards are usually the chance of being hit by ballistics, or getting gassed. The reason you see those suits so often is that they look really ...


11

No, there is no consensus. In fact, there's quite a bit of debate about it — around the 2 causes you mentioned. To sum up the proposed triggers: The eruption happened about 2 days after the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, which killed over 5000 people. Lupi et al (2013), Sawolo et al. (2011), and others including the Indonesian government, favour this as the ...


11

Can volcanos really change the climate so relatively (geological timescale speaking) fast, up to the abnormal levels that we are seeing today? Even more so. You wrote about the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora. While that was an extremely large eruption in terms of written human history, it was rather tiny compared to the absolutely colossal volcanic events ...


11

I think the answer to "Why don't scientists use fire entry suits to study volcanoes?" is that this is a question of professional ethics rather than of technology. For some institution to support, condone, or fund such a proposal, it would first have to conduct some sort of a safety review. At a significant cost, this approach would encourage risky behavior, ...


9

Particle size is the key issue. Saharan loess (wind-blown dust) must have a small enough particle size that it can be lofted by ordinary wind speeds: typically, it is in the 20-50μm size range. Particle sizes lofted into the upper atmosphere during explosive volcanic eruptions can be much higher: "The explosive ash was bimodal in size distribution with ...


8

I think you have drawn the 'short straw'! As disasters go, volcanoes have about the least to do with human activity. Basically, volcanoes are the product of plate tectonics, which operates on a scale vastly greater than human impacts on the planet. At least one book has been written about earthquakes, volcanoes and human impacts, but the linkage is tenuous ...


7

That the CO2 imbalance causing global warming is anthropogenic is accepted by 97% (source) of climatologists. This site has this to say about human's effect on CO2 imbalance: But consider what happens when more CO2 is released from outside of the natural carbon cycle – by burning fossil fuels. Although our output of 29 gigatons of CO2 is tiny compared ...


7

I will propose an explanation. From experience I would say it have something to do with the US meteorological systems (systems as in masses of air) active the 18th of May 1980 and the week(s) after. A bit of background : air masses can be high pressure (cool, and stable) or low pressure (warmer, more energy, more volatile, less stable). The next figure show ...


7

I just saw this question while looking at Lusi 9th anniversary news. As an author of several studies on this topic, wanted to say that the answer provided by Matt is an excellent summary of the triggering debate. Two updates though. 1) I published a detailed reexamination and processing of the petrophysical and drilling data from BJP-1. This includes a ...


6

Yes. Human activity can probably cause volcanic eruptions, albeit indirectly. Regardless, human activity affects volcanic disasters in several other ways. First, let's look at how humans can cause volcanic eruptions. Humans affect climate, and climate affects volcanos Kutterolf et al. (2012) showed recently that climate affects the frequency of volcanic ...


6

The effectiveness of such shelters against pyroclastic flows have been wonderfully discussed by user889. However, I understand that those shelters were never intended to protect against pyroclastic flows, but from pyroclastic fall, a completely different threat, on which volcanic debris referred as pyroclasts and volcanic bombs fall on the ground after been ...


5

Massive, caldera-forming eruptions like the one at Toba usually happen at large silicic systems. At such systems, we expect a surface uplift as the pressure builds in the magma reservoir. This can be measured by radar interferometry (InSAR). It is the case at Laguna del Maule volcano (Chile), were uplit up to 28 cm per year has been measured by InSAR (Feigl ...


5

Probably the best known is more recent, the 1902 eruption of Mt. Pelée on Martinique, where 30,000 people were killed by pyroclastic flows. I don't know the extent of burial - it appears that the city may have been destroyed more by the ash cloud than the dense part of the flow.


5

I will be using for an example in this answer the collapse of the lava dome at Mount St Helens in 1980. The lava dome on top of the mountain grew between March 20 and May 18, and then a landslide caused by the angle of the top of the dome exceeding the angle of repose of the country rock caused the pressure on the magma chamber underneath to be released, ...


5

An excellent example of this would be the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991. The specific nature of this eruption features massive amounts of aerosols and ash put into the atmosphere. When Mount Pinatubo erupted, the amount of dust and ash it injected into the atmosphere was responsible for a worldwide reduction in temperature of 0.5–0.6 °C in the northern ...


4

Tiltmeters placed on the flanks of an active volcano can measure changes in the slope angle of the flank. These changes are often inferred to be related to changes in the shape and activity of the magma chamber. This article provides a quick and dirty example of how these instruments can be used, as well as their limitations. In this case, the tiltmeters ...


3

Volcanic earthquakes aren't actually all that strong. That's quite easily understandable by just looking at length scales: In the largest earthquakes that happen on earth, tens of kilometers of subduction zones rupture at once, releasing the stress that has built up from two plates moving past each other (but being locked) for decades. Even large calderas ...


3

Here is another example: Ceren (El Salvador) around A.D. 660 (discovered in 1978). Ceren is believed to have been home to about 200 people. Researchers have excavated 12 buildings, including living quarters, storehouses, workshops, kitchens, religious buildings and a community sauna. There are dozens of unexcavated structures, and perhaps even another ...


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The general answer is no. There are two critical factors that govern how a volcanic eruption behaves; the pressure of the magma and the type of magma. Regarding the types of magma, this was asked and answered in the question, Is the magma in one volcano different from the magma in every other volcano? With current volcanoes there are three types of magma: ...


3

I am not sure about the size of Krakatoa eruption but the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in Indonesia around 12th June 1991 is considered as the largest eruption in the past 100 years. Global average of decrease in solar radiation after 4 months of eruption was about 2.7 +/- 1 W/m^2. Global average surface reaching solar radiation is about 198 W/m^2. In other ...


3

Can volcanos change the climate? Yes, but it has to be a very big one, like once every 100,000 years, perhaps every million years. The volcanic eruption of 75,000 years ago may have kickstarted, or assisted the onset of the last ice age, though debates on that remain unresolved. It may have also threatened the survival of the human race and caused ...


3

Main danger to life near a volcano is not heat from the lava but volcanic gases. Volcanic gases are typically very acidic, poisonous gases and can displace breathable air near lava flows. http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hazards/gas/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcanic_gas


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1 in 100,000 is an estimate of frequency based on past eruptions which should not be confused with possbility or probability. It is an oversimplification to state the probability of an eruption as 0.001% chance per year.


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There are at least 9 old centres of volcanic activity in Taiwan: The Tatun Volcano Group 15km north of Taipei, they think there are active magmatic systems there but the last eruption was 200,000 years ago. The Chilung Volcano Group in the north is extinct, with no magmatic activity and hasn't erupted in 800,000 years. Mount Guanyin is listed as extinct ...


2

The speed of the lava flow from Kilauea depends on a few things: The amount of activity at the source of lava. This flow you are talking about is coming from a vent that is 20 miles from the Kilauea caldera. So, it is more like a leak, than a true eruption. There's not a lot of force behind these types of events and thus not a lot of lava coming out. The ...


2

There is no "standard volcano" or "standard volcanic eruption". However, to perform the calculation you want to do, you could use the "typical" of "average" volcanic eruption. The characteristics of the "average" volcanic eruption can be found by calculating the average parameters of many volcanic eruptions. Such averages are not often reported, because ...


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