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Lake breezes(similar to sea breezes) are fundamentally a feature of mesoscale meteorology and the peer reviewed reference Small Lake Daytime Breezes: Some Observational and Conceptual Evaluations details both the observational studies of lake breezes and the conceptual understanding behind the formation of the lake breeze. Since OP's question is How big ...


6

This is an (annoying) artefact of BBC weather forecasts, and not an actual feature of the weather. At low wind speeds, the speed shown is the expected average speed. At higher wind speeds, the speed shown is the maximum expected gust. It changes over when the maximum expected gust is 40 mph (not knots). You can tell the difference because average wind ...


3

Sunlight (heat), planetary rotation, and the shape of the land in passes over. Prevailing wind is mostly caused by hadley cells, or the masses of air move due to the thermal difference between the pole and the equator as well as the surface of the earth and space. Thus it is the interaction of two different thermal convection cells. this moment twists into ...


2

Strong upwelling-favorable winds (like the ones described) cause coastal upwelling in the following manner: Winds in these systems flow parallel to the coast (with the coast to the left in the northern hemisphere or to the right in the southern hemisphere) and generate upwelling dynamics. Surface Ekman balance is setup (in deep enough waters) with water ...


2

It is not clear that the Obukhov length has an exact physical interpretation. The length L is certainly a length that dimensional argument shows to follow from the set of basis parameters that Monin and Obukhov proposed was sufficient to describe turbulence in the bottom 10% or so of atmospheric boundary layers. We may ask several questions: is the MO basis ...


2

When I look at problems like these I first check to see if there is a well tested and well documented implementation already rather than reinventing the wheel. In this case MetPy temperature advection is a well tested software that does many of the things meteorologists want including calculating finite differences with the right map scale factors. Since ...


2

The (statistical) variation is not the same as the gradient. The gradient is a measure how things change from here to a nearby point, or from now to a point in the near future. The variation, on the other hand, just says how often wind speeds of different magnitude happen. For example: If the wind were to blow at exactly 30 km/h all the time, then the ...


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IF there has been a steady wind direction over that 24 hrs, then yes, this will give you the average wind speed. If the wind has changed direction, then there may have been higher speeds that have partially cancelled each other out.


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Did you try to sketch one of those situations? Try a square grid, define x and y, and then put $U$ and $V$ components onto one of the grid points, which you choose as starting point. Now proceed to implement a). For example, from your starting arrows, go to the next grid point eastwards, and implement $\frac{dV}{dx}<0$, i.e. the upwards pointing arrows ...


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You can retrieve that information from ERA5 reanalisys data. It cover the whole world from 1979 until almost the present. The resolution is 0.25°x0.25° and includes many fields that characterize ocean waves. here is a list of available fields for download in the "Ocean Waves" section: And there is of course, winds data as well.


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So i don't know for how many timesteps you've integrated. And I don't really understand what you have done to obtain the temperature $\rm T[t,s,y,x]$ in your second box, but this seems a bit like a redundant operation: the end result is $T:=T$, so of course your right side looks like the left side, in terms of the temperature colourmap. I don't understand ...


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I believe that tropical storms contributes a little to cooling the earth by transporting warmer matter higher into the atmosphere where there is less of a greenhouse effect. By this I mean there is less gas that can trap (capture/reradiate) Infrared between the the hotter material and outer space. However it may be that the albedo effect is far greater.


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