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Unanswered Questions

701 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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0answers
281 views
+150

How reliable were early measurements of palaeomagnetic directions?

The methodology and equipment for palaeomagnetic studies in the 1960s and 1970s was often rather primitive by today's standards. For example, Doell and Cox (1967) imply that the standard procedure for ...
20
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0answers
302 views

Is it possible for a sting jet to form over a continental landmass?

Sting jets are thought to be responsible for some of the most damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones in the mid-latitudes. So far they have only been confirmed in the European region, ...
19
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0answers
215 views

How are Mauna Loa $\ce{CO2}$ monthly trends computed?

The problem I am trying to figure out how $\ce{CO2}$ concentration trends are computed in the data provided by the Earth Systems Research Laboratory Mauna Loa Observatory. The data contains monthly ...
14
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0answers
191 views

How to compute the earthquake occurrence probability under ETAS model

I have fitted an ETAS model (unmarked) with an independent exponential magnitude distribution to a set of earthquake data. However, I do not know how to calculate the probability of the earthquake ...
14
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0answers
122 views

What are the ground motion prediction equations for 3-D ruptures?

Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) estimate ground motion at any given site due to an earthquake at a distance. There are many such equations, each with different parameters. Can somebody ...
14
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0answers
136 views

How much heat is transported from the interior to the surface in the form of hydration enthalpy?

Heat is transferred from the interior to the surface through several methods. One is simply the conduction of sensible heat through the crust - I would guess this accounts for most of it. But some is ...
12
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0answers
56 views

Why were no interferometers launched on weather satellites between the '69-'72 IRIS-D and the 2002-onward AIRS?

As early as the late 1960s / early 1970s, Nimbus-3 carried Iris-B and Nimbus-4 carried Iris-D, both infrared spectroradiometers with a moderate spectral resolution. Subsequently, I believe it was not ...
11
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0answers
81 views

Using sodium chloride load as a point source pollutant variable in SWAT model?

I'm currently working with the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). My task is to model the loading of sodium chloride into streams. One approach I would like to take is to use the point ...
10
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0answers
68 views

How are scatterometer observations standardised before being fed into reanalysis models?

This very basic question occurred to me during a talk on reanalysis data sets. Often we know the observations produced by a particular instrument, say rain radar, are biased from one year to the next ...
10
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0answers
53 views

What field studies have developed or supported the Penman-Monteith equations for estimating evapotranspiration?

I'm trying to understand transpiration estimation methods. The FAO recommends a standard Penman-Monteith methodology for modeling evapotranspiration based on meteorological and vegetation parameters (...
10
votes
0answers
539 views

How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
9
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0answers
132 views

Does the magnetic field really protect Earth from anything?

Many topics discussed here in Earth Science SE, tend to be about facts that are of consensus in the scientific community but not widely accepted by the general public. Instead, this one is widely ...
9
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0answers
72 views

Would a volcanic winter trigger an oceanic “spring”?

There is large amounts of observations supporting the effects of volcanic eruptions on climate: A long term subtle warming effect due to $CO_2$ and a short term, but more intense cooling effect due ...
9
votes
1answer
265 views

What makes a nuclear winter so extreme and destructive?

This may be a sort of, pertinent to the times, and disturbing question, inspired by the difficulties surrounding North Korea and the situation with it and nuclear weapons. I've heard of this idea of "...
9
votes
0answers
210 views

What is the finest horizontal grid spacing that Eulerian grid-cell air-dispersion models should use?

My colleagues run the Advanced Research Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in predictive mode, and then test the skill of the model anywhere from 12 - 84 hours out from the initialization ...

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