Andy M
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Terracing in Mahad
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8 votes

The Deccan Traps are the geological formation that make up the Western Ghats in India. They were formed by massive volcanic eruptions that formed flood basalts. These are layers of lava that are ...

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Is it possible for a local flood to reach the heights of a mountain, say 7000 ft, and wash away a ship over 350 miles?
7 votes

No it isn't possible. 7000 feet is 2133 metres. That water level would cover almost all the land mass of the globe, except for the highest mountains, like the Himalayas, the Andes etc. It would need ...

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Ways to make a "How hard is it raining?" detector for personal use?
6 votes

A 'video disdrometer' is a device for characterizing raindrop size distributions. Professional versions (e.g A 1D distrometer) can use a video camera to image the shadow cast by water droplets moving ...

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How can a starting point south of the north pole to an endpoint north of the south pole be halfway around the world?
5 votes

There is a site that will show you the antipode for any location, and takes you through the calculation if you need it - https://www.geodatos.net/en/antipodes/united-states/monterey. Looking at the ...

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How much would weather data from ocean-going vessels improve climate research?
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5 votes

"Ship of opportunity" weather observations have contributed to global data collection exercises since the dawn of meteorology as a science. There are many national and international ...

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How far into the past would you have to go before you couldn't breathe the atmosphere?
4 votes

850 million years ago and earlier oxygen levels were below 6%, which is the minimum for human survival. But at oxygen levels below 14% we start to be significantly impaired, and we have evolved with ...

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Did geologists determine the age of rocks and fossils before the advent of modern scientific dating methods?
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4 votes

The approach adopted by Charles Lyell (and other writers in a similar timeframe), in his book 'Principles of Geology' which was first published in the 1830s was to look at processes in the modern ...

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Is the maximum human population carrying capacity of Earth higher or lower than the current total human population?
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4 votes

The FAO estimate that we use 11% of the Earth's surface area for agriculture, and that that represents approximately a third of the land that 'could' be used (http://www.fao.org/3/y4252e/y4252e06.htm)...

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What does "-4,257m" mean in Google Earth?
3 votes

Google earth uses the EGM96 geoid as it's reference for altitude/depth. EGM96 is a model of the ocean surface that takes into account the fact that the earth isn't a sphere, and some account of ...

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Find optimum number and location of rain gauges
3 votes

The answer, as is often the case for questions about optimums, depends on objectives and constraints. How accurately do you want to measure rainfall? The more gauges the more precision, but obviously ...

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Hypothetical: Can we rehabilitate arid/desert landscapes through the artificial precipitation from exhausts of hydrogen powered airplanes?
3 votes

Rough calculations: A 747 burns about 10000 kg of fuel an hour. Assuming it burned hydrogen at the same rate it would produce about 100000 kg (or litres) of water an hour. Flying at 1000 km/hr that ...

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What would people drilling through Mount Everest find?
3 votes

The summit of the mountain is made up of 400 million year old sedimentary rocks laid down long before the uplift 50 million years ago. These rocks contain marine fossils including Trilobites and ...

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Stratigraphy of limestone applied to the Great Pyramid of Giza
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3 votes

Theoretically? Maybe! Practically? No. Identifying the general quarry site by comparing lithology is often possible. It might be possible to identify a block as coming from a particular level in a ...

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How to measure Air CO2 Cheaply for a School Science Experiment
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2 votes

There are a number of simple sensors around for Arduino/Pi setups that will measure CO2 for around $50 - pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jchemed.8b00473 has an example of their use. There are packaged ...

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Is There a Correlation Between Earthquake Magnitude and the Deformation Observed in the Rock?
2 votes

Generalizing such relationships is, as suggested above, hard to impossible - but for well studied and understood systems such correlations have been observed. For instance there is a clear, and almost ...

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Does deforestation increase global temperatures or just local temperatures?
2 votes

Deforestation does impact climate change and rainfall patterns. A study in 2018 outlined some of the feedbacks, firstly the direct effect of releasing CO2. Changes in evapotranspiration from ...

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Difference between Earthquake Seismographs
2 votes

An earthquake generates waves that move through the earth in different ways. Two of the principle waves are the compressional P wave and the shear S wave. P waves move faster than S waves, so by ...

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Recent high seismic activity in Europe
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2 votes

There is a nice tracker for global earthquake activity at https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/earthquakes/global-seismic-activity-level.html, although it doesn't conveniently allow you to look at ...

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Calculating Stream Flow from Rainfall Data
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2 votes

Calculating river flow from rainfall - evaporation is a simplification. Firstly you are assuming that you can accurately measure rainfall, then that theoretical estimates of evaporation are correct ...

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What effect does river channelization have on the surrounding water table?
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2 votes

The concept of rivers being the outcrop of an aquifer at the surface is a useful generalization, but tends to simplify the real world. The water level in a river can be higher than the water table in ...

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How to tell whether sediment was laid in ocean or on land
1 votes

Although now rather dated, USGS Bulletin 1080 has a useful discussion of various lines of evidence that can be used to distinguish lacustrine from marine deposits. Looking at purely physical ...

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If we send ocean waters into glacier of north pole/south pole to reduce sea level, will it help global warming?
1 votes

The problem faced by so many geo-engineering approaches is that the scale of the problem is so great. We are losing approximately 300 cubic kilometers of ice just in the Artic each year (trends in ...

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How to convert mol m-2 s-1 CO2 emission to Megaton day-1 (MtCO2 per day)?
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1 votes

Do the calculation for 1 mol of CO$_2$ 1 mol of CO$_2$ weighs 49 grammes = 0.0049 kg 86400 seconds in a day, so 864000 * 0.0049 = 423.36 kg/day/m$^2$ The surface area of the globe is 5.1 x 10$^{14}$ m$...

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What is the correct way to report historical daily Max / Min / Avg Temperature by City?
1 votes

Yes, daily minima, maxima and precipitation totals are calculated simply as you suggested in your question. Take care that there aren't missing values,, but that's more of an issue calculating means. ...

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Would ultrasound be a valid method of mapping ocean floors given the perceived "gel" is ocean water?
1 votes

Optical LIDAR systems for marine use are being developed and are being used for accurate mapping of archaeological remains under water. See https://optics.org/news/8/3/26. However if a sonar is too ...

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Would it be possible, from the earth’s creation or during its various geomorphological changes, for all the following hypotheses to be probable?
1 votes

The second part of the question is easy to answer - given that the Arctic has been ice free in relatively recent geological history, e.g. in the Mesozoic, and it is expected to be ice free in summer ...

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It is possible to reduce global sea level via filling empty lowlands with ocean water?
1 votes

Based on calculations of the effect of melting ice on sea level, we know that to effect a 1 mm change in global sea level requires around 360 km3 water. The largest lake by volume, Lake Baikal, ...

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Is VLF-EM scanning for fractures a valid way to find groundwater for a well?
1 votes

VLF-EM is a perfectly valid technique for helping an expert decide where best to locate wells in geological environments where water is largely flowing in fractures. Typically it is a useful technique ...

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Permeability test
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0 votes

Strictly defined, permeability is an intrinsic property of a rock or soil, and is thus independent of the viscosity of the gas or liquid that is flowing through. Hydraulic conductivity is the ...

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