gerrit
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2 answers
7 votes
211 views
How do I convert Sentinel-5p / TROPOMI vertical column density to concentration?
6 votes

The unit mole / m² has dimensions count per area; the unit µg / m³ has dimensions mass per volume. To go from a quantity per area to a quantity per volume, you need to understand some properties of ...

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4 answers
4 votes
4k views
Difference between Meteosat and Insat satellite Images
2 votes

These are not pure satellite images. On the images shown in the question, one can see bathymetry in the oceans that cannot be seen from a satellite image. Rather, those images use a static image ...

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8 answers
10 votes
3k views
Could an icy/extremely-cold asteroid/comet ever strike and cool the Earth?
13 votes

No, it's not possible to cool the Earth with an asteroid impact. The mass of any asteroid that could hit the Earth is far too small to be a heat sink. The asteroid that killed the dinosaurs had a ...

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2 answers
2 votes
641 views
What does supersaturation with respect to ice mean?
Accepted answer
2 votes

The saturation vapour pressure defined by the American Meteorological Society: The vapor pressure of a system, at a given temperature, for which the vapor of a substance is in equilibrium with a ...

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1 answers
5 votes
572 views
Convert NO2 concentration in Sentinel-5P data from mol/m2 to μg/m3 on the ground level
Accepted answer
7 votes

...measured in mol/m² within the total or tropospheric column. Is it possible to deduce concentrations for a specific slice of the troposphere? Not really, since you have a crucial bit of information ...

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1 answers
19 votes
6k views
Debunking scientific paper "Has global warming already arrived?"
Accepted answer
35 votes

The comment is saying that the authors are making a fallacy as follows: Temperature increase will be associated with an increase in tropopause height. Using instrument/dataset X, we fail to measure a ...

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1 answers
5 votes
98 views
Format/interpretation of NOAA Elevation Data
4 votes

If you can find a NetCDF file, I would recommend using it. NetCDF is a very common self-documenting format with libraries widely available for any language that is suitable for scientific data ...

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2 answers
13 votes
4k views
Why are the clouds white and Australia black in weather satellite infrared images?
12 votes

I had a very similar question in a job interview! The only difference is that it was an image from SEVIRI on Meteosat. The imager on HIMAWARI is called the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). The AHI ...

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1 answers
4 votes
120 views
Where can I get hourly ambient temperature for each county in United States?
6 votes

You can get this from the Integrated Surface Dataset (ISD). First get a list of all weather stations from ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/isd-history.txt: stations = pandas.read_fwf("ftp://ftp....

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1 answers
3 votes
125 views
How does Earth's thermal radiation into space vary by location and time of day?
2 votes

The yearly average Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) is around 145–345 W/m², as measured by the AIRS instrument: Source: Wikimedia Commons contributors, "File:AIRS OLR.png," ...

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2 answers
0 votes
3k views
In which state of matter exactly are the clouds?
5 votes

Clouds consist of suspended (floating) liquid water droplets ("liquid clouds"), frozen (solid) ice particles ("ice clouds"), or a mixture of both ("mixed phase clouds"). In-between those droplets or ...

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3 answers
13 votes
3k views
Why have "ozone-depleting substances" led to a third of all global warming and half of arctic sea ice loss?
11 votes

The Global warming potential (GWP) describes how much global warming a particular gas may induce in a particular time period. It is often expressed in terms of CO₂-equivalent. The best known ...

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3 answers
12 votes
1k views
How is global greenhouse gas emission calculated?
Accepted answer
10 votes

Your question is simple enough, but the answer depends on what exactly you're looking for. Who is emitting where right now? Real-time global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions with a high ...

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1 answers
4 votes
143 views
How to open old GOES-1 satellite image files downloaded from NOAA CLASS
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5 votes

Unfortunately, the older weather satellite data is, the harder it is to read. Perhaps NOAA's Weather and Climate Toolkit can open it. The old stuff usually comes in tightly packed binary formats ...

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1 answers
1 votes
189 views
By what objectively correct process could we determine the truth about the actual severity of anthropogenic climate change?
1 votes

We have reasonably good observations of the present. We have moderately decent observations of the past (with larger uncertainties the further back we go). Unfortunately, we have no observations at ...

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2 answers
1 votes
192 views
How reliable would measuring global heating from satellite be?
5 votes

Measuring long-term temperature trends from satellites is possible, but difficult due to a variety of reasons. This is ongoing research. In short: the satellites that have been around long enough ...

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3 answers
13 votes
3k views
How is it possible to use up the water in a region?
Accepted answer
14 votes

You're making a mistake, at least for the second case: In the second case, the water ends up as rain, presumably within a few hundred kilometers of the evaporation point. You cannot model a dry ...

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1 answers
3 votes
330 views
Are there "transparent" clouds?
Accepted answer
4 votes

Are there "transparent" clouds? Yes. One type is called subvisible cirrus clouds. They're essentially clouds that are very, very thin. According to Reverdy et al. (2012): Spaceborne lidar ...

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3 answers
8 votes
345 views
Could the current climate change events cause long-term problems in the viability of Earth to sustain life?
Accepted answer
3 votes

There is one scenario in which climate change could render the Earth inhospitable to life in general, which would be a runaway greenhouse effect. In a runaway greenhouse effect, the Earth would get ...

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3 answers
5 votes
200 views
Can weather radar be used to track swarms other than mayflies?
5 votes

Swedish scientists have used the Movable Atmospheric Radar for Antarctica to detect birds, which showed up in their radar echo. I remember that they were talking about teaming up with ornithologists ...

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2 answers
7 votes
538 views
What are good metrics to compare climates?
Accepted answer
8 votes

The Köppen climate classification is a classic metric to classify climates: Source: Wikimedia Commons It classifies climates based on the number of months with temperature below and/or above certain ...

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1 answers
1 votes
877 views
Water vapor content versus specific humidity
Accepted answer
2 votes

For a study relating to rainfall, I would be inclined to look at total column water vapour (TCWV), also known as integrated water vapour (IWV) or precipitable water. They're all (more or less) the ...

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3 answers
47 votes
15k views
How do 'greenhouse gases' let heat in, but not let it out?
78 votes

In a nutshell: The radiation that enters is shortwave radiation from the sun. Solar radiation is dominated by visible (as well as UV and near infrared) radiation with a wavelength mostly between 0.2 ...

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1 answers
4 votes
99 views
Uncertainty In ERA-Interim data
5 votes

There is no traceable uncertainty associated with each datum in the ERA-Interim reanalysis. However, in ERA-5 there is an ensemble. This multiplies the data volume, but it means you can use the ...

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5 answers
14 votes
3k views
Could the earth be much older than the currently accepted number?
14 votes

The age of the solar system is 4.6 billion years. We know that because almost all meteorites are 4.6 billion years old¹. Therefore, that puts a very solid upper boundary to the age of the Earth. ...

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6 answers
6 votes
341 views
Are there any weather services that provide hourly forecasts beyond 7 days?
2 votes

No. The atmosphere is too chaotic for hourly forecasts at time scales beyond several days to be useful.

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4 answers
19 votes
3k views
Can the previous weather be computed from the current situation?
12 votes

Validation is done by hindcasting, not by reversing the time axis, which seems to be what you're asking about. In hindcasting, we take the state at some time in the past, apply our weather models to ...

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2 answers
3 votes
107 views
Aspiring Geophysicist
5 votes

I would recommend to do an undergraduate in physics. I work at a department of Meteorology. When faculty hire a new PhD student or postdoc, they often prefer those with an undergraduate in Physics ...

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3 answers
9 votes
244 views
Why don't weather forecast models normally take solar eclipses into account?
Accepted answer
10 votes

Total solar eclipses are rare. Globally, they only happen every 18 months. In any given spot, they are much, much rarer, with a recurrence period of many hundreds of years. Solar eclipses are ...

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3 answers
9 votes
10k views
Does the elliptical orbit of the Earth have effect on Earth's climate?
5 votes

Yes, but this is not mainly due to the small intensity variation of sunlight with distance. Rather, the elliptical orbit affects the length of the seasons, which — along with other orbital effects — ...

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