gerrit
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3 answers
12 votes
1k views
How is global greenhouse gas emission calculated?
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10 votes

Your question is simple enough, but the answer depends on what exactly you're looking for. Who is emitting where right now? Real-time global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions with a high ...

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3 answers
9 votes
244 views
Why don't weather forecast models normally take solar eclipses into account?
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10 votes

Total solar eclipses are rare. Globally, they only happen every 18 months. In any given spot, they are much, much rarer, with a recurrence period of many hundreds of years. Solar eclipses are ...

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1 answers
10 votes
581 views
Is it inevitable that a mega tsunami will hit America?
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10 votes

As a lecturer I had during my undergraduate put it: if you draw your information from BBC/Discovery Channel documentaries, you will believe we could get a 100-million-people-killing disaster every ...

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2 answers
8 votes
2k views
How far up do you have to go before most of the atmosphere is below you?
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9 votes

Roughly 5.5 km, although the exact value depends on the weather. All you need to do is to solve the hydrostatic equation and find the height at which the pressure is 50% of the height at sea level (...

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3 answers
22 votes
669 views
Is there any explanation for the large amount of sea ice around Antarctica in 2014?
9 votes

(Note: this is based on what I found in literature. Sea ice is not my expertise.) Short answer: We don't know. It may be related to changes in atmospheric temperature, wind stress, precipitation, ...

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2 answers
7 votes
538 views
What are good metrics to compare climates?
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8 votes

The Köppen climate classification is a classic metric to classify climates: Source: Wikimedia Commons It classifies climates based on the number of months with temperature below and/or above certain ...

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1 answers
5 votes
572 views
Convert NO2 concentration in Sentinel-5P data from mol/m2 to μg/m3 on the ground level
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7 votes

...measured in mol/m² within the total or tropospheric column. Is it possible to deduce concentrations for a specific slice of the troposphere? Not really, since you have a crucial bit of information ...

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2 answers
7 votes
211 views
How do I convert Sentinel-5p / TROPOMI vertical column density to concentration?
6 votes

The unit mole / m² has dimensions count per area; the unit µg / m³ has dimensions mass per volume. To go from a quantity per area to a quantity per volume, you need to understand some properties of ...

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1 answers
4 votes
120 views
Where can I get hourly ambient temperature for each county in United States?
6 votes

You can get this from the Integrated Surface Dataset (ISD). First get a list of all weather stations from ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/isd-history.txt: stations = pandas.read_fwf("ftp://ftp....

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2 answers
10 votes
1k views
How can daily brightness be quantified or measured?
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6 votes

It can be measured in units of energy per surface area, for example, kWh/m2. The official SI name would be radiant exposure but I haven't seen that phrase used in a climate or weather context. For ...

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2 answers
4 votes
513 views
Have these optical satellite ground station locations been chosen for clear skies?
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6 votes

Yes, mean cloud cover is routinely measured from satellites. Like all satellite data (and in fact all measurements), it does have an uncertainty, but for the purpose of this question the satellite ...

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2 answers
8 votes
794 views
Where can we see the noctilucent clouds?
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6 votes

Noctilucent clouds form during summer at high latitudes, such as between 50 and 70°N. They are noctilucent because at their high elevation (80 km), the sun is still shining, although the sun is below ...

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1 answers
7 votes
193 views
How have levels of outgoing longwave and incoming shortwave radiation changed over the last 20-30 years?
6 votes

Have we seen any changes in the flux associated with the recent "slowdown" in global warming? There is no evidence for such a slowdown, nor for a change in the associated flux. Atmospheric warming ...

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1 answers
4 votes
143 views
How to open old GOES-1 satellite image files downloaded from NOAA CLASS
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5 votes

Unfortunately, the older weather satellite data is, the harder it is to read. Perhaps NOAA's Weather and Climate Toolkit can open it. The old stuff usually comes in tightly packed binary formats ...

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2 answers
0 votes
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In which state of matter exactly are the clouds?
5 votes

Clouds consist of suspended (floating) liquid water droplets ("liquid clouds"), frozen (solid) ice particles ("ice clouds"), or a mixture of both ("mixed phase clouds"). In-between those droplets or ...

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2 answers
1 votes
192 views
How reliable would measuring global heating from satellite be?
5 votes

Measuring long-term temperature trends from satellites is possible, but difficult due to a variety of reasons. This is ongoing research. In short: the satellites that have been around long enough ...

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3 answers
5 votes
200 views
Can weather radar be used to track swarms other than mayflies?
5 votes

Swedish scientists have used the Movable Atmospheric Radar for Antarctica to detect birds, which showed up in their radar echo. I remember that they were talking about teaming up with ornithologists ...

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1 answers
4 votes
99 views
Uncertainty In ERA-Interim data
5 votes

There is no traceable uncertainty associated with each datum in the ERA-Interim reanalysis. However, in ERA-5 there is an ensemble. This multiplies the data volume, but it means you can use the ...

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2 answers
3 votes
107 views
Aspiring Geophysicist
5 votes

I would recommend to do an undergraduate in physics. I work at a department of Meteorology. When faculty hire a new PhD student or postdoc, they often prefer those with an undergraduate in Physics ...

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3 answers
9 votes
10k views
Does the elliptical orbit of the Earth have effect on Earth's climate?
5 votes

Yes, but this is not mainly due to the small intensity variation of sunlight with distance. Rather, the elliptical orbit affects the length of the seasons, which — along with other orbital effects — ...

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2 answers
5 votes
194 views
MODIS Surface Reflectance Data State QA Aerosol Quantity field meaning is unclear
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5 votes

Most likely, climatology means there was no retrieval at all. Bayesian retrievals combine information from an a priori with information from measurements. When the retrieval fails for whatever ...

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3 answers
7 votes
2k views
Could Global Climate Change increase the average moisture in the air?
5 votes

Out of the total water on Earth, only a tiny fraction is held in the atmosphere at any given time. Therefore, the direct effect of melting land or sea ice will not result in an increase in specific ...

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1 answers
5 votes
98 views
Format/interpretation of NOAA Elevation Data
4 votes

If you can find a NetCDF file, I would recommend using it. NetCDF is a very common self-documenting format with libraries widely available for any language that is suitable for scientific data ...

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1 answers
3 votes
330 views
Are there "transparent" clouds?
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4 votes

Are there "transparent" clouds? Yes. One type is called subvisible cirrus clouds. They're essentially clouds that are very, very thin. According to Reverdy et al. (2012): Spaceborne lidar ...

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1 answers
6 votes
72 views
What is meant by controlling and reacting factor?
4 votes

A controlling factor is a factor that acts as a cause for others. A reactive factor is rather the consequence: that which reacts to the controlling factor. For example, the Sun is certainly a ...

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1 answers
3 votes
3k views
How does humidity vary with height in the Earth's atmosphere?
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4 votes

Humidity strongly varies as a function of time and space, which is why standard atmospheres like CIRA may choose to omit it at all. It simply doesn't make sense to include an “average” humidity ...

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3 answers
3 votes
370 views
What are the major contributors to the amount of infra-red emitted by the earth?
4 votes

It depends on the wavelength. The figure shows the most absorbing species between 6 and 16 µm for a U.S. standard tropical atmosphere (Note: this figure does NOT include the Earth's surface!). ...

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1 answers
6 votes
148 views
What's the minimum number of days needed for reporting a "monthly average" of daily satellite retrievals?
4 votes

Provide a monthly average in every grid cell, and describe how many measurements were used for each cell. There is no fixed rule for the minimum number of days for reporting a monthly average. A ...

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2 answers
7 votes
289 views
Are Southern Hemisphere 'Polar Blasts' caused by global warming?
4 votes

In general, climate is the statistics of weather over a long period of time. In general, an individual weather event cannot be attributed to global change / global warming. An increase in the ...

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4 answers
11 votes
16k views
What woud happen to me if I touched the aurora?
4 votes

As others have pointed out, you cannot really touch it as such. What you can do, potentially, is to fly through it on a sub-orbital flight. It might be beautiful; indeed, aurora is from a large ...

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