Pont
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7 answers
10 votes
28k views
Is there any experiment to prove that CO2 with the atmosphere concentration can have greenhouse effect?
41 votes

Your question about water vapour is quite a common one among people learning about the greenhouse effect. Once you discover the relevant proportions of water vapour and CO2 in the atmosphere, it's ...

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1 answers
19 votes
1k views
What is this "crystal ball" located at a meteorological station?
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31 votes

It's a Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder, used to record the times at which the sun is shining. It acts as a lens, focusing the sunlight onto a piece of card. If the sun is shining, the focused beam ...

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1 answers
13 votes
658 views
Who are the 3% in the often cited "97% of climate scientists"?
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24 votes

As the abstract makes clear, the finding of Cook et al. (2013) is not really "97% of researchers agree..."; rather, it is "97% of peer-reviewed publications agree". They didn't just go through some ...

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4 answers
23 votes
2k views
Does the strength of Earth's magnetic field influence its climate?
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22 votes

There is no significant geomagnetic influence on the cycle of glacials and interglacials. I think the easiest way to determine this is to consider geomagnetic reversals. A reversal obviously involves ...

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7 answers
36 votes
157k views
How high must one be for the curvature of the earth to be visible to the eye?
21 votes

A quick Google turned up a published article answering precisely this question (Lynch, 2008). The abstract states: Reports and photographs claiming that visual observers can detect the curvature of ...

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7 answers
27 votes
36k views
Is a complete global flood physically possible on Earth?
20 votes

The "precipitation rate" part is easy to answer, at least to a first approximation. We have 40 days and nights (960 hours) in which to raise sea level above the peak of Mount Everest (let's round up ...

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2 answers
16 votes
65k views
Are the processes of the rock cycle currently in dynamic equilibrium?
18 votes

It's an interesting question, but in practice I think it's impossible to answer. It's very difficult to measure the rates of many of those processes, and the divisions between rock types can be quite ...

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2 answers
11 votes
513 views
Equatorial bulge and tectonic plates
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18 votes

The plates are not as rigid as you think. You seem to be imagining the situation as something like this: I boil an egg and take the shell off in pieces, but I can't take a piece of shell from the end ...

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1 answers
5 votes
2k views
Has a reduction in car use ever had an effect on the ozone layer?
15 votes

The sequence of events you describe has never happened, for several reasons. As Sabre Tooth mentions in the comments, vehicle emissions have a negligible effect on stratospheric ozone. (Note that ...

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1 answers
0 votes
159 views
Is the Mauna Loa CO$_\mathsf{2}$ record affected by the nearby mantle plume?
13 votes

How is ist possible that Mauna Loa Observatory is the International Reference Observatory for CO2 Global Meassurments I don’t know that it is ‘the International Reference Observatory’. The Mauna Loa ...

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1 answers
12 votes
680 views
Magnetic "magnetic hills"?
13 votes

Certainly there are such places. They are simply spots where the nearby rocks have a high concentration of magnetic minerals with a strong remanent magnetization. They're not necessarily literal hills:...

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4 answers
18 votes
609 views
Is there any simple way of using the Coriolis effect to determine what hemisphere you are in?
13 votes

It's my understanding that the famous "sink swirl" example doesn't work simply because the Coriolis effect is too weak at that scale: it's insignificant compared to the motion of the water from ...

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1 answers
7 votes
3k views
Newton's estimate of the age of the Earth
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11 votes

The estimates of Newton and Kepler, and the similar estimates of dozens of their contemporaries, were produced by treating the Bible as a historically accurate document and deriving a chronology from ...

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2 answers
6 votes
4k views
Meaning of the C in the unit "mg C L-1"
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11 votes

Given the subject matter of the paper, I'd assume that it stands for carbon, and the whole expression refers to milligrams of carbon (or organic carbon) per litre of lake water.

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1 answers
4 votes
305 views
What is the purpose of this large structure on a Japanese hillside?
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10 votes

The structure looks similar to this photograph of a "Japanese land retention system" mentioned in passing towards the bottom of this webpage. From the linked page: Land retention systems in Japan, ...

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2 answers
21 votes
1k views
What caused the Younger Dryas cold event?
10 votes

In addition to the theories mentioned by Azzie Rogers, there is another intriguing (but highly tentative) hypothesis: the YD may have been triggered by a large cosmic impact event. The results of a ...

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3 answers
22 votes
615 views
Are there any techniques for imaging the deep Earth besides seismic waves?
10 votes

One interesting and relatively new technique is by the detection of geoneutrinos. These particles are produced by radioactive decay in the Earth's interior. They are uncommonly suitable for probing ...

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2 answers
5 votes
809 views
What is Oligo-Miocene radiation?
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8 votes

The ‘Oligo-Miocene’ part The Oligocene and the Miocene are epochs of geological time. The Oligocene lasted from ~33.9 million years ago to ~23 million years ago; the Miocene followed immediately ...

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2 answers
4 votes
96 views
Were there any plans or proposals for "unilateral geoengineering deployments" before this paper was publsihed?
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8 votes

I think the introduction of the paper itself covers this adequately: … a growing number of studies have investigated regional SG application scenarios, which could prove preferential to a global ...

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2 answers
14 votes
1k views
How and when people first realized that Antarctica is a continent?
8 votes

Probably the first recorded observation (and certainly one of the first) of the Antarctic mainland was of the Trinity Peninsula, part of the Antarctic Peninsula, by Edward Bransfield in 1820. Even ...

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1 answers
8 votes
336 views
Laboratory simulation of the Earth's magnetic field
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8 votes

Magnetohydrodynamic experiments intended to create laboratory analogues for the Earth's magnetic field generally use molten sodium rather than nickel. You can read about the details of one such ...

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1 answers
4 votes
208 views
Confused about whether physical impact is 'erosion'
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7 votes

I'm assuming here that you're asking whether you can apply the term ‘erosion’ to the damage your stone suffered, rather than the damage your floor suffered. In this case, the applicability of the term ...

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1 answers
7 votes
1k views
Why do tectonic plates have a tendency to drift closer to the equator?
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7 votes

I'm not a tectonicist or a science historian, but as far as I know the ‘pole flight force’ or Polfluchtkraft was introduced by Wegener in his theory of continental drift. Essentially it's just the ...

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2 answers
1 votes
580 views
How are natural specimens, such as ‘Moqui Marbles’, distinguished from man-made artifacts?
7 votes

Like Michael, I find your question a little unclear, but the crux of it seems to be this: ... does science have to conclude [that a specimen is] just a rock because the composition is entirely from ...

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1 answers
3 votes
579 views
Help determining virtual geomagnetic pole
7 votes

You say you're "not given the declination angle", but you also say "the horizontal direction of magnetism of these lavas is due west". That's your declination angle, right there! Since I assume (from ...

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2 answers
9 votes
386 views
How are paleomagnetic polarities determined?
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7 votes

This is a big question: it essentially translates to ‘how do we do palaeomagnetism’? I will try to give a brief overview and links to more detailed explanations. I'm also going to focus on the ‘how’, ...

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2 answers
2 votes
177 views
Is this paper attributing a change in polar wander to climate change?
6 votes

The term ‘polar wander’ is ambiguous. In this case it's got nothing to do with the magnetic poles, but rather with the Earth's spin axis. If you think about a desk globe mounted on an axle, the poles ...

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1 answers
9 votes
149 views
Why are some theories as to the cause of glacation less popular among the scientific community?
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6 votes

Your question is framed as if any model of glaciation were only allowed to consider one of those influences. I think practically any palaeoclimatologist would accept that astronomical forcing, solar ...

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1 answers
10 votes
3k views
Formation of flint & chert in limestones/chalk
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6 votes

This is not really my specialism, but in the absence of other answers so far, I'll give it a go. Firstly, to simplify the terms of the question a little bit, flint is a form of chert, so we don't ...

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2 answers
15 votes
460 views
What, if any, paleoclimate data can be derived from stromatolite fossils?
6 votes

Stromatolites have indeed been used in palaeoclimatic investigations. Here are a couple of papers I found through Google Scholar: Paul I. Abell, Stanley M. Awramik, Robert H. Osborne, Sterling ...

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