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The weather conditions of both peaty soil and laterite soil are the same, i.e. high rainfall & temperature. But the former turns out to become 'excessive organic' whereas the latter becomes 'excessive decayed' soil.

What is the reason of this, that even after same climatic conditions they turn out to show opposite bacterial activity?

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I didn't study tropical soils in any depth, but I've studied quite a bit about wetland soils. In my experience most peaty soils are waterlogged, which would encourage anoxia and prevent decay. Laterites are, from what I've read, usually dry at least part of the year, which would allow bacteria to munch on the organic matter.

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  • $\begingroup$ Indeed it's what DataWranger sais, Peat is acidic and waterlogged the: water doesn't go through the soil, they are much more recent than laterites which can be millions of years old, Laterites are porous and are leached by chemical weathing, less by biological activity, especially some million years ago where there were more tropical, hot and rainy times. $\endgroup$ – aliential Apr 18 at 0:41
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Although the temperature and climatic conditions for the formation of laterite as well as peaty soil is same but what causes variation in their humus content is high humidity and a thick vegetation cover (in particular fauna) present in peaty soil.

  1. A thick vegetation of fauna will eventually increase the accumulation of a large dead organic matter, hence giving a rich humus and organic content to the peaty soil.

  2. Humidity refers to the addition of water molecules in the atmosphere. As temperature increases, humidity also increases, which eventually gives rise to bacteria and fungi, that thrives well in high temperature. These microorganisms will further increase the humus content through the process of decomposition.

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome. Not sure what you mean with "vegetation of fauna", though ... $\endgroup$ – user20217 Apr 17 at 12:14

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