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Guessing that the Earth's magnetic field is the furthest observable Earth Science related phenomenon from Earth itself, though not completely sure.

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    $\begingroup$ I think en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triton_(moon) would be sad that you didn't think of it as part of Earth Science. $\endgroup$ – Neo Apr 30 '14 at 20:03
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    $\begingroup$ @DavidHammen, I disagree with your assessment that Planetary Science is only a subdivision of astrophysics, when in fact, it is one of the biggest attractions at AGU. Furthermore, high impact journals also agree: EPSL (Earth and Planetary Sciences) lumps them together. Finally, most studies of Earth's magnetic field come from Earth Science departments. $\endgroup$ – Neo Apr 30 '14 at 20:27
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    $\begingroup$ @Neo: I see, thanks for the explanation. Seems as though you're saying that any comparable source of observable phenomenon that is able to be correlated with Earth-based phenomenon is Earth Science. Is that correct? If so, guess I'd have to agree, since otherwise you'd have to discount the knowledge learned as not being part of Earth Science, which makes no sense. Is Triton the furthest away example you're able to cite real Earth Science based research on? If so, please think about posting that as an answer. Thanks! $\endgroup$ – blunders Apr 30 '14 at 20:45
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    $\begingroup$ This question begs the question "What is Earth Science?" That is a question for meta, not here. $\endgroup$ – Richard May 1 '14 at 16:20
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    $\begingroup$ @blunders The question is very directly asking for an extent or inclusion list for "Earth Science". In point: "if Earth's magnetic field is part of Earth Science, [snip] why is it commonly not included in the "spheres" of Earth Science?" Even the title question is, essentially, "how far does Earth Science extend?" I think this is asking pretty directly to delineate what constitutes "Earth Science". That's why I believe this belongs on meta. $\endgroup$ – Richard May 1 '14 at 17:35
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It appears the Earth's magnetotail, which is a part of its magnetosphere, is on the Earth's nightside; lengthwise exceeds 6,300,000 kilometers (3,900,000 miles); and is the furthest known observable feature of Earth.

I am unable to explain why is it commonly not included in the "spheres" of Earth Science.

Diagram of Earth's magnetosphere, indicating direction of solar wind and highlighting the bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, polar cusp, plasmasphere, plasma mantle, magnetotail lobes, plasma sheet, and neutral point.

Note: The gravitational pull of Earth in theory spans the known Universe, though it's unlikely to have any observable affect, unlike the Earth's magnetotail.

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