38

Water has lowest EM absorption in the blue part of light spectrum and increases rapidly towards both UV and red parts of spectrum. As a result in visible light water is blue. Same goes for the ice as it has very similar absorption spectrum. While there is a lot of white in the picture, all of it is a thin snow cover on top of blue ice. Once the snow ...


21

Antarctic sea ice extent for April 2014 reached 9.00 million square kilometers (3.47 million square miles), the largest ice extent on record by a significant margin. Is there any explanation for such an extreme excess of sea ice around Antarctica recently? I'll give four separate answers: It's not as significant an increase as you think. The ...


17

"Transparent" is not the same as "white" : white bodies reflect most of the light while transparent bodies let the light though. Once the light enters into water, it may need to travel a long way before it has a chance to go out, and that long travel path provides more opportunities for absorption. Water absorbs light by itself much more than snow, but ...


11

IceCube was initiated as the Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) project. Since the sensor array involved drilling deep holes vertically into the Antarctic ice sheet by melting ice, no ice cores were retrieved. The bore holes have, however, been used to construct temperature profiles through the Antarctic ice sheet published in a paper in ...


10

There are two ways in which earthquakes could affect the Antarctic ice sheet, either by occurring on the Antarctic continent or by occurring elsewhere and sending tsunami-type waves towards the ice sheet/continent. Seismic activity occurs all the time on Antarctica. Particularly the West-Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is located over seismically active zones ...


9

Is an iceberg the size of Delaware [6,451 square kilometers] actually remarkable, or something that just happens from time-to-time? In March 2000 iceberg B-15 formed which was 11,000 sq. km. and 295 km long. In October 1998 iceberg A-38 formed which was 6,900 sq. km. A Delaware size iceberg would be the 3rd largest in the past 20 years. The 1990 article The ...


9

(Note: this is based on what I found in literature. Sea ice is not my expertise.) Short answer: We don't know. It may be related to changes in atmospheric temperature, wind stress, precipitation, ocean temperature, changes in coastal polynas, or other factors. The usual way to explain observed behaviour is through models. However, models are currently ...


9

Barnes & Hillenbrand (2010) argue that there is faunal evidence for a late-Quaternary trans-Antarctic seaway. From the abstract: We investigated biological evidence for past connectivity between different regions of Antarctica by comparing the composition of modern bryozoan assemblages from the continental margin around Antarctica. Surprisingly, we ...


8

The Australian and Belgian Antarctic research stations use local resources for their respective water supplies. Australia operates a number of stations. In the past, snow was melted but currently local melt water is processed and used. However, the Australian base, Casey, also melts ice and the Mawson base also melts snow. Getting freshwater in ...


8

That's a very interesting study, but only provide very rough information on the posible volcanoes that might exist under the ice. In the case of the volcanoes shown in the radargram I'll highlight some points that might be the source of your confusion: The tephra layer that overlay the volcanoes in the radargram was not erupted by those volcanoes. It was ...


8

Developing since 2014, the crack was projected in 2015 to lead to "the largest calving event since the 1980s," according to this report in The Cryosphere journal by glaciologists studying the region. From 2010, "Overview of areal changes of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula over the past 50 years" says that the largest break-up event in that period ...


6

Antarctica is a whole continent and it is as diverse as any other continent. There are two reasons buildings are often built off the ground on pillars. 1.- Avoid snow accumulation: Although in average Antarctica is a dry continent, in some coastal areas there can be massive amounts of snow accumulation. Building on pillars spare the buildings to get buried ...


6

Glaciers move by two processes: Internal deformation Basal sliding This figure (made for my candidacy exam), exemplify both processes as if we were following a single block of ice within a glacier: Basal sliding is when the entire glacier slides together over the bedrock, aided by the lubrication of ice water between the glacier and ground. Internal ...


6

Glaciology is a large field of research, and I cannot include all aspects in a short answer. I'll try to give some concepts that can help you in your understanding of the cryosphere. Glaciers are, per definition, moving due to gravity towards lower altitudes. There are some exceptions, e.g. rock glaciers are the stagnant remain of a moving glacier. Large ...


6

I can't imagine a moving object more suitable for remote sensing tracking than Iceberg A-68, with such slow displacement and huge size. So I don't think it will be particularly useful to install any instrumentation to track its position on site. However, there would be plenty of other measurements that can be done, about mass balance, stress fields, etc. I'...


6

I think you may have misunderstood the abstract of the paper, which says: Various human activities, including fossil fuel combustion and forest clearing, emit about eight petagrams (or billion tons) of carbon in the form of CO2 into the atmosphere annually. The global ocean absorbs about two petagrams of CO2, and about a half of that amount is ...


5

Lyle et al. (2007), prior to the paper you mention, also came up with this idea that the ACC initiated with its modern setting (i. e. with strong currents and mixing throughout the water column) during the Late Oligocene (ca. 25 Ma), so roughly 10 Myr after the Eocene-Oligocene when the antarctic glaciation is thought to have occurred. Their evidence is ...


4

The wavelengths that travel through the ice have a faster speed of travel, and the physical size of the pressure variations that cause the sound are not 100 meters. It's more like 1 meter, so it's similar to having an oversized speaker cone blasting air waves into the ice, which the ice then transmits to the microphone most clearly at a depth of 1-2 meters. ...


3

First, we might want to distinguish between the different types of upwelling: Coastal upwelling: It is the best known form of upwelling. Winds in these systems flow parallel to the coast (with the coast to the left in the northern hemisphere or to the right in the southern hemisphere) and generate upwelling dynamics. Surface Ekman balance is setup (in deep ...


3

Remember that Antarctica is covered in a sheet of ice. Strip away the ice and you get something like this: (Source:Wikimedia Commons) This is the Matterhorn in the Alps on the Swiss-Italian border. The word horn is used in glacial geomorphology to refer to a mountain peak that has been ground by glaciers on many sides to create a "pyramidal peak" with ...


3

I looked at trends in Antarctic sea ice extent in the satellite era from 1979 to 2015 for both the summer minimum (February) and the winter maximum (September) and did not find a statistically significant trend. Please see: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2598152


3

Some new evidence has come out, with the investigated are extending from 35S to 90S. Some things were different than in the study from 2007. The Southern Ocean played an important role in carbon sink. Compared to this domain, fishing activities are much in the low latitude. Mikaloff-Fletcher, SE, 2015, Science


3

Water (solid or liquid) has some absorbtion. It is rather low for pure water for visible or near-visible light and that's why water it is considered transparent. But only to an extent - few meters of water look blue and few hundred meters look black, esp. if you are UNDER those few hundred meters. Then we have snow. Snow has an abundance of optical ...


2

The ozone hole size changes according to the season. It is usually larger in winter because cold temperature Why is the Ozone Layer 'hole' more pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere? And in this graph you can see that the ozone level is lower in Australia, South Africa and south America area. http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/stratosphere/...


2

In my survey of sea ice extent for the same period (1979-2015) I found that the apparent positive trend in dispersed sea ice in the Antarctic in September is anomalous and possibly spurious for two reasons: (1) there was no trend in concentrated sea ice extent or in the degree of sea ice dispersion, and (2) the residuals of the OLS trend line showed patterns ...


2

From reading the literature on the subject, my impression is that we don't know that much on the subject, primarily due to a scarcity of measurements. My understanding is that the first and only year-long time-series was made at the Drake Passage in 1979 (e. g. Whitworth & Peterson, 1985) by the ISOS programme (International Southern Ocean Studies). In ...


2

Try the long game: Start reading up on the research that is being done. For the interesting ones, start corresponding with the authors asking questions about the work. They have to be good questions, showing that you know what you are talking about. Look at who funds each researcher. Check the papers for those 'thank-yous' that give credit to various ...


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