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Pollen is one of many types of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). So can you make clouds without pollen? Yes, but you still need other sources of CC. Don’t fall into the false dilemma that pollen is a requirement for cloud formation. The more soluble the CCN is, the easier it is to form a cloud (see Koehler theory). Can a cloud be formed without CCN? I saw it ...

7

The air doesn't warm directly: it is warmed by the ground. So, the Sun warms the ground which warms the air. In the day, the Sun warms the ground until the evening. In the night, the Earth is cooling because there is no Sun's radiation coming. As soon as the Sun is high enough, the ground starts to warm, same with the air. So, the lowest temperature is right ...

3

The law that governs the pressure of gas at equilibrium over a dissolved liquid is called Henry's Law. Note, the equilibrium assumption, as there is some time dependence. That is, if you start with no dissolved gas in pure water, then in a relatively short amount of time, the amount of dissolved gas will be less than equilibrium. Let's talk in abstractions. ...

2

Strictly speaking, $\lim_{\Delta z \to 0} Ri=Ri_b$. This is because the gradient Richardson number: $$Ri=\frac{\frac{g}{T_v}\frac{\partial \theta_v}{\partial z}}{\left(\frac{\partial U}{\partial z}\right)^2++\left(\frac{\partial V}{\partial z}\right)^2}$$ can be approximated as Ri \approx\frac{\frac{g}{T_v}\frac{\Delta \theta_e}{\Delta z}}{\left(\frac{\...

1

Where all that nitrogen comes from. The two terrestrial planets plus one moon, in order of the amount of Nitrogen that they possess in their atmospheres: are Venus, Titan, finally Earth. Our planet is last. Everyone seems to not understand the difference between quantity and percentage. Venus has an atmospheric pressure of 92 bars, unlike Earth's of one bar ...

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