6

Probability is used in weather forecasting. I will only highlight some examples due to my lack of knowledge in some areas. Before initializing a forecast model the data needs to be assimilated. That means we need to somehow put measurements from ground based stations, satellites etc. into the model and fit this data to the grid. We then have an "...


4

Unfortunately, your question has no answer. Both have errors. Both can be unreliable. Your choice really depends on how you plan on using them. Satellites instrument contain sources of error, such as bad observations (wildfires in the NIR), mapping problems (especially near the poles), and representation error. Don't underestimate those sources of error- ...


3

The answer is actually pretty easy. The WRF model lies on a grid. The vertical component of the grid is unevenly spaced, though you can manually space it. The vertical coordinate of WRF uses a sigma vertical coordinate (even though the namelist calls them eta): $$\sigma=\frac{P-P_{surface}}{P_{top}-P_{surface}}$$. So the values of sigma are specified (or ...


3

My ansatz for what cyl means is likely Equidistant Cylindrical Projection, because in the older Basemap module, 'cyl' was the shortname for that projection. But the reality is that since the GFS is a global spectral model with a latitude-longitude grid, it likely does not require a CRS. That is, it presupposes a sphere, where a CRS projects the spherical ...


2

I know this question has an answer confirmed, but I'll add my own comments for posterity's sake. There are different types of clouds. Buoyancy-driven (cumulus-type) clouds are the types that have the most definitive bases and ceilings. The cloud base is approximately the Lifted Condensation Level, which is the height that the air near the surface would have ...


1

the coldest temperature is -129 F, and few places ever get anywhere near that. This is at high altitudes in Antarctica. There are very few places with weather stations (geographically) near there. There are more places with weather stations near the hottest places, so (because mathematical statistics theorem) there are more record max readings near the ...


1

Unfortunately it's common for satellite data services to show these types of images qualitatively, omitting the units or even a colorbar. This is an infrared image from the 10.8 micron channel (TIR1) of INSAT-3D. That website you link to is a bit misleading because (for me at least) following the link puts the text describing the 0.65 micron visible channel ...


1

In a sense, the full structure of a cumulus cloud extends all the way to the ground. The cloud is formed from the convection of air rising off the ground. The rising column becomes visible as a cloud when the atmospheric temperature becomes cold enough to condense water vapor, and the level where that occurs is the base we see. From Wikipedia: Cumulus ...


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