You might like to check World Cave List which has a pretty extensive list of caves, their depths, and lengths.
This list has been automatically produced from our World Caves Database.
Total depth and length of all caves currently collected in the database:
Number of caves = 2424
Caves deeper than 300m = 1075
Caves longer than 3kms = 1628
The authoritative sources for your data are:
ASOS: Automated Surface Observation Systems at airports, and
MADIS: the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System, from NOAA
Those are collections based on calibrated, maintained equipment, with good geographic coverage.
And Wunderground already archives them, so it's a matter of selecting and using those,...
The WMO OSCAR database is a list of all Earth observation satellites¹. The resulting table can be sorted by orbit type, status (inactive/operation/planned), agency, and other aspects. From their own description:
This table shows all known past, current and future satellites for meteorological and earth observation purposes.It can be sorted by clicking ...
The only open and ongoing data source for in-situ ocean wave measurements I am aware of is the National Data Buoy Center. Though NDBC manages data service from plenty of moored buoys in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America, unfortunately there isn't much in your region of interest.
The only buoys I have found that are ...
I don't think there can be "the single standard" for a range of technical and organisational reasons.
Probably the biggest thing to note is that different formats serve different purposes. For example, comparing WFS, WMS and WCS. WFS is a feature concept - the sort of data you might get as observations from a set of irregularly distributed sites (e.g. ...
This is an interesting and common question, so I'll try to give a good answer here, that I think is a good place, as well as GIS and Open Data SE.
First, regarding the format, you will never find data natively stored in text or tabular form, because the large data volume would lead to huge files very difficult to handle. Data is usually stored in binary ...
You could try building one using a global Digital Elevation Model. There are several freely available like TanDEM-X, SRTM, or ASTER GDEM. You'd have to look for all the pixels containing a negative value. Adjacent negative pixels would give you connected regions below sea level, and you could easily estimate their area just by multiplying the number of ...
The easiest global sea surface height database is from Aviso: http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com/en/data/products/sea-surface-height-products/global.html
Aviso has been distributing Topex/Poseidon and ERS altimetric data worldwide since 1992.
The MERRA dataset has data for the world from 1979 to date. It updates frequently.
You can get the data as HDF or NETCDF. If your GIS package doesn't read those, there will be translation packages around the web to convert them into a suitable format.
You'll want the U- and V- wind data. You might want pressure too. And possibly even turbulence data.
Rose diagrams, also called polar bar plots, are useful for showing azimuthal (directional) data. Any dataset consisting of lots of measurements of direction or orientation could be visualized this way.
A common application in sedimentology is visualizing measured cross-bedding azimuths. This can help work out the palaeocurrent direction (that is, the ...
Google Maps and MapQuest have gathered data and information through subcontractors and their own internal efforts. Their information is proprietary and is very hard to gain access to (and most methods of scraping this data would violate their Terms of Service). It's generally not considered a reliable source for getting anything beyond geocoded addresses.
It was not discontinued
Using the Climate Data Online tool from NOAA's website, I was able to get sunshine data through March 1st of this year for both major airports in my metropolitan area.
Sunshine data is relatively restricted geographically compared to other datasets like temperature and precipitation (for those I counted 7 stations in my metro area),...
For "historical" population data, you can refer to the Gridded Population of the World (GPW), version 4. This dataset makes available estimates of population at ~1 km resolution (30 arc second) for the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020.
The GPWv4 was also used by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre for the Global Human Settlement project. This ...
The most authoritative source for weather data in Germany is the German Weather Service (DWD). They have a climate data center that by now provides historical data free of charge. You can find it here: http://www.dwd.de/EN/climate_environment/cdc/cdc_node.html (it appears some knowledge of German might be helpful.)
For Europe, I'd look into this dataset : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2008JD010201/abstract
This is a high-resolution gridded daily dataset derived from station data. However, this is a gridded dataset (25 km resolution) aimed at validation of Global Climate Model. So, depending on your need, this might be of help or not. if this kind of ...
CLIMDEX, the "Datasets for Indices of Climate Extremes" is probably the closest you are going to get, for any pre-computed indices. The 27 indices it includes are listed on the indices page of that site.
Unfortunately, it doesn't include anything like "coldest 3-day average per year", let alone "coldest 3-day average over the last 5 years". I doubt there ...
Sounds like your question, like most questions about historical data, might be a little challenging to find the right source, as it often is around the world.
But seeing you said Atlanta brightened my eyes!
For if one is seeking information for a US climate observation sites (most big cities, and a fairly reasonable web across the US... there's about 2-6 ...
The study of minerals is the field "mineralogy" In some ways it would be a subset of inorganic chemistry, restricted to crystaline materials of natural origin. However, mineralogy includes the physical as well as chemical properties, especially crystallography, X-Ray diffraction and optical properties. It also includes aspects of how the minerals were formed ...
For long-term sea level data, some of the PSMSL (Permenant Service for Mean Sea Level) datasets may be of use. These only cover discrete points, mostly tide gauges on coasts, but do so for the long term, giving monthly and annual means.
I'm not aware of any datasets that are quite what you want (archived point forecasts for the next day). There is less digestible data out there though.
NOAA NCDC archived messages
This website has archives of all messages that NOAA transmits. The vast majority are unrelated to your needs, but if you look through the message types you might find something ...
Grid Resolution of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data
The data is available on different grids depending on the variables of interest:
The original grid is a T62 Gaussian grid, which grid cells do not have a constant lon-lat spacing over the whole globe (see e.g. Gaussian grid at Wikipedia), with 28 sigma levels. The sigma levels are listed on this page, where ...
Where to find the data
The German Climate Research Center (DKRZ, Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum) hosts the Word Data Center for Climate (WDCC). You can search the WDCC via the CERA Database (cera-www.dkrz.de).
Looking for ECHAM provides you with several sets of ECHAM model results: here. You get at least the ECHAM data for the second to fourth IPCC ...
The US National Institute of Standards and Technology is a good source. The following image show absorbance between 2.5 and 32 $\mu$m. For wavelengths shorter than 2.5 $\mu$m, other sources (less reliable) suggest that there is no significant absorption bands.
The original data in ASCII JCAMP-DX format can be downloaded here.
This is not meant to be a comprehensive answer:
Sometimes the easiest way to calculate the velocity of an ocean current is to take the published transport of the current and divide by the total depth of the current.
For instance, for the Agulhas Current, you can take Figure 2 from Casal et al. (2009) (below) and extract the velocities based on the depth ...
The documentation linked from the datasets page states:
Air Temperature (all units in Fahrenheit on PDF monthly form and tenths of degrees Celsius on CSV or text)
EMNT - Extreme minimum temperature *
EMXT - Extreme maximum temperature *
The Petersburg data looks plausible under this interpretation (EMXT −3.9°C to 33.9°C over the year).
Being remote sensing, algorithms for inverting the raw data to get physical quantities may be improving with time. Perhaps a slight adjustment in algorithm or calibration happened between July and Sept of this year. However you would expect this to introduce a systematic adjustment, not a scatter.
One might reasonably wonder why the data is steady before ...
Federal Contaminated Sites Inventory
as well as
Crown Contaminated Sites Database (British Columbia)
Orphaned/Abandoned Mine Site Rehabilitation (Manitoba)
Abandoned Mines Information System-AMIS (Ontario)
The National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) is archived by NCDC here: http://nomads.ncdc.noaa.gov/data/ndfd/
The NDFD contains gridded forecasts across the U.S. produced by NWS forecasters. You can also get NDFD output in realtime from a variety of sources, including the NWS itself: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ndfd/technical.htm
The ERA Interim reanalysis is made by ECMWF and the other reanalysis is made by NOAA. Reanalyzes of the past are made by running global climate models and these differ because NOAA and ECMWF use different models and perhaps even slightly different data. The models on the other hand can be very different for example on implementation of data assimilation, ...