# Tag Info

### How to learn the different types of rock

The best way to learn about rock types is to handle rock specimens guided by an experienced geologist. By handling rock specimens you get to feel the weight of the rock, its roughness or smoothness ...
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### Is there a special name for along-course elevation profiles of rivers, and where you can you find them?

I guess there are multiple names, but I know it as the river's "long profile", and it is used in academic papers (one example here and a search in google scholar here). But you can find similar ...
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### North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) future prediction - Academic papers?

A good start is the article by Goodkin et al. (2008) that relates past fluctuations of NAO to climate variability and argues that in the late 20th century NAO changes are much more dramatic as a ...
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### References for moving and nested grids in models

Book: Shyy W, Udaykumar HS, Rao MM, Smith RW. Computational Fluid Dynamics with Moving Boundaries. Taylor& Francis: London, 1996. Some relevant papers: Jin C, Xu K. A unified moving grid gas-...
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### What kind of data is best shown in a rose diagram?

Rose diagrams, also called polar bar plots, are useful for showing azimuthal (directional) data. Any dataset consisting of lots of measurements of direction or orientation could be visualized this way....
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### How to learn the different types of rock

Go to a good geological museum and spend time there. Alas, many such museums have dumbed down, and are not as informative as they used to be (Natural History Museum in Kensington, London - I'm writing ...
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### Climate change review for a scientist

EnergyNumbers suggestion is good, but you can only go so far in reading about it second hand. I suggest that you pick a grid cell of interest, then go to the World Bank's climate change knowledge ...
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### How to cite LandSat 8?

Landsat products obtained via various sources (ex the EROS Center) can have their own requirements when using their products. For instance the EROS Data Citation page indicate that they are quite open ...
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### Does anyone have absorption coefficients at different wavelengths for sulfur dioxide?

The US National Institute of Standards and Technology is a good source. The following image show absorbance between 2.5 and 32 $\mu$m. For wavelengths shorter than 2.5 $\mu$m, other sources (less ...
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### What Earth Science research will be done from the International Space Station?

NASA Space Station Research Explorer allows to filter experiments by expedition and category. A query for expedition 63 and the "Earth and space science" category yields the following 17 ...
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### how are the global effects of local environmental disasters?

An excellent example of this would be the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991. The specific nature of this eruption features massive amounts of aerosols and ash put into the atmosphere. When Mount ...
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### What are the compressive strengths of goethite and magnetite?

I managed to find EFFECT OF MINERALOGY AND TEXTURE ON THE STRENGTH OF IRON ORE, which states the uniaxial compressive strength of goethite is 157 kg.f/cm2, which converts to 15.397 MPa. STRENGTH OF ...
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### Timeline of atmospheric model resolution

Europe is looking nicer and nicer every year (source): This is a little bit out of date, since AR5 is already out - the dates for the first 4 IPCC reports were: IPCC First Assessment Report, 1990 ...
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### Introductory course on interpreting GOES-R satellite images?

There are numerous short modules offered by UCAR's COMET/METED website: https://www.meted.ucar.edu/training_detail.php Modules specific to GOES-R include (but aren't limited to): GOES-R/JPSS test ...
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### Climate change review for a scientist

If you're interested in in the cause of climate change from a scientific perspective and how the climate system science have evolved I highly recommend The Warming Papers by David Archer and Raymond ...
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### At what altitude stalagmite/stalactite caves are located? What kind of rocks are needed to form them?

The classic text has long been "Karst Hydrology and Physical Speleology" by Alfred Bogli, - which I highly recommend. Karstic dissolution and precipitation (to form stalactites, helictites, etc.) are ...
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### References on hurricanes

There are many generalized references, such as http://moe.met.fsu.edu/~rhart/papers-hart/2006Hart.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_cyclone http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/tcfaqD.html But ...
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The trouble with geothermal gradients is they are not the same everywhere. It is generally accepted that the geothermal gradient is 25-30 °C/km but there can be local variations. In South Australia ...
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### Are there minerals that can't scratch each other but have different hardness on Mohs scale?

It may be difficult to ascertain the hardness of a mineral relative to an other mineral in a Mohs streak test if one (or both) are not homogeneous. Already a small local grain of an impurity may put ...
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### Are there minerals that can't scratch each other but have different hardness on Mohs scale?

The idea discussed in the paper you reference is about transferability of Mohs ordinal scale to true hardness. A mineral's ability to scratch is related to it's hardness, but only an indentation test ...
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### how are the global effects of local environmental disasters?

I'll add to Ben MS's answer by mentioning the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland, that shut down air traffic for quite some time. Another example that comes to mind are tsunamis. The 2004 ...
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### Observations of sea ice typology in the Arctic

Concerning datasets, there are several, depends on Your final purpose. One of the simplest is output from OSI-SAF, which has info about Sea Ice edge, concentration, type, emissivity and drift. It is ...
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### Are there books or on-line resources about graphic design for geology?

I don't think there are any general books on graphic design for geologists. However, there are some books about graphical standards for geological maps and sections: FGDC Digital Cartographic ...
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### Are there books or on-line resources about graphic design for geology?

There is an very detailed "Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization" by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) including e.g. color and pattern charts. Check the main ...
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### Recommendations for books on boundary layer Meteorology?

Is there any particular aspect of boundary layer meteorology? Or just something general? NOTE: I have not read all of these nor do I know anyone who has read these, but judging by the year published ...
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### Earth History Book

Although not exactly a textbook, I would highly recommend you to read Marcia Bjornerud's Timefulness (2018). It goes through all of Earth's history, including the atmosphere. It's short and kind of ...
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