The best way to learn about rock types is to handle rock specimens guided by an experienced geologist.
By handling rock specimens you get to feel the weight of the rock, its roughness or smoothness or if it feels slippery, soapy, glassy, firm or crumbly. Is it weak or strong? You will also be able to better see the colours in the rock, the sizes of the ...
I guess there are multiple names, but I know it as the river's "long profile", and it is used in academic papers (one example here and a search in google scholar here). But you can find similar diagrams under names like the river's height profile, longitudinal profile, longitudinal map or geographic profile. These last two are the ones used in an Australian ...
A good start is the article by Goodkin et al. (2008) that relates past fluctuations of NAO to climate variability and argues that in the late 20th century NAO changes are much more dramatic as a result of enhanced energy (temperature) in the northern hemisphere. (Source WHOI)
Visbeck et al. (2001) describe the complex relationship between NAO and climate ...
Shyy W, Udaykumar HS, Rao MM, Smith RW. Computational Fluid Dynamics with Moving Boundaries. Taylor& Francis: London, 1996.
Some relevant papers:
Jin C, Xu K. A unified moving grid gas-kinetic method in Eulerian space for viscous flow comnputation. Journal of Computational Physics 2007; 222:155–175.
Hirt CW, Amsden AA, Cook JL. An arbitrary ...
Rose diagrams, also called polar bar plots, are useful for showing azimuthal (directional) data. Any dataset consisting of lots of measurements of direction or orientation could be visualized this way.
A common application in sedimentology is visualizing measured cross-bedding azimuths. This can help work out the palaeocurrent direction (that is, the ...
Go to a good geological museum and spend time there. Alas, many
such museums have dumbed down, and are not as informative as they
used to be (Natural History Museum in Kensington, London - I'm
writing about you!).
Go walkabout with local rockhound / geology clubs. There are
always geologists trying to impress with their knowledge.
Get a geological map of a ...
EnergyNumbers suggestion is good, but you can only go so far in reading about it second hand. I suggest that you pick a grid cell of interest, then go to the World Bank's climate change knowledge portal.
Climate Change Knowledge Portal
This gives a good cross section of 16 CMIP-5 AOGCM outputs. Check out the variation, and accuracy of the hindcasts vs ...
Landsat products obtained via various sources (ex the EROS Center) can have their own requirements when using their products. For instance the EROS Data Citation page indicate that they are quite open regarding how their documents are cited and require the following acknowledgement only. For example
Data available from the U.S. Geological ...
The US National Institute of Standards and Technology is a good source. The following image show absorbance between 2.5 and 32 $\mu$m. For wavelengths shorter than 2.5 $\mu$m, other sources (less reliable) suggest that there is no significant absorption bands.
The original data in ASCII JCAMP-DX format can be downloaded here.
An excellent example of this would be the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991. The specific nature of this eruption features massive amounts of aerosols and ash put into the atmosphere. When Mount Pinatubo erupted, the amount of dust and ash it injected into the atmosphere was responsible for a worldwide reduction in temperature of 0.5–0.6 °C in the northern ...
Europe is looking nicer and nicer every year (source):
This is a little bit out of date, since AR5 is already out - the dates for the first 4 IPCC reports were:
IPCC First Assessment Report, 1990
IPCC Second Assessment Report, 1995
IPCC Third Assessment Report, 2001
IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, 2007
IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014
And an updated ...
If you're interested in in the cause of climate change from a scientific perspective and how the climate system science have evolved I highly recommend The Warming Papers by David Archer and Raymond Pierrehumbert. It is a commented compendium of classic scientific papers forming the basis of the science of climate change and anthropogenic global warming.
The classic text has long been "Karst Hydrology and Physical Speleology" by Alfred Bogli, - which I highly recommend.
Karstic dissolution and precipitation (to form stalactites, helictites, etc.) are basically hydrologic processes in which groundwater seeks to attain thermodynamic equilibrium with the carbonate rocks with which it is in contact. Water flows ...
There are many generalized references, such as
But I think the best is Kerry Emmanuel's presentation:
Is this sufficient detail for you? If not, then you probably need to do ...
I'll add to Ben MS's answer by mentioning the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland, that shut down air traffic for quite some time.
Another example that comes to mind are tsunamis. The 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean mostly affect South East Asia: Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and the eastern part of India. But other areas were affected as well, ...
Concerning datasets, there are several, depends on Your final purpose.
One of the simplest is output from OSI-SAF, which has info about Sea Ice edge, concentration, type, emissivity and drift. It is derived mostly from polar orbiting meteorological satellites, I guess.
More detailed info can be found on Univ of Illinois pages
Visual images from MODIS ...
I don't think there are any general books on graphic design for geologists.
However, there are some books about graphical standards for geological maps and sections:
FGDC Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization
British Geological Survey Standard Cartographic Index [PDF]
Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources symbols guide [PDF]
There is an very detailed "Digital Cartographic Standard for
Geologic Map Symbolization" by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) including e.g. color and pattern charts.
Check the main website for the latest version of the Standard, availabe in PostScript format, as pdf, or as ArcGIS10 template.
There is no model that consistently yields either highest or lowest warming because each model has strengths and weaknesses which depend upon the conceptual emphases. This varies with latitude, continentality, proximity of water/lakes, presence/absence of ice and mountains, regional significance of atmospheric processes - both physical and chemical, regional ...
MetEd from NCAR has a good encyclopedia of models that summarizes some weather models. Of course, when models update, such as the GFS dynamical core being converted to the FV3, or changes in data assimilation systems, they may not be up-to-date. This also doesn't have ALL weather models, but some of the more common ones.
Of course, there are models missing ...
Although not exactly a textbook, I would highly recommend you to read Marcia Bjornerud's Timefulness (2018). It goes through all of Earth's history, including the atmosphere. It's short and kind of poetic, but backed by solid science. Her previous book, Reading the Rocks, seems somewhat similar (it's subtitle is The Autobiography of the Earth), but I did not ...
"Atmospheric modeling, data_assimilation and predictability" by Euginia Kalnay, is an introductory book, which is good to get an overall overview of the subject.
If you are more interested in the numerics I would recommend "Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics" by Dale R. Durran.
Unless you're needing specific methods for application purposes, the justification you're providing is clear and wouldn't require a citation. Maybe this is a homework question?
Some rambling thoughts:
Larger watersheds typically have a larger time of concentration. Where things becomes tricky for larger watersheds is that assumptions around rainfall ...
This is a difficult question since time of concentration ($t_c$) can in theory, vary substantially, for two basins of equal size.
Off the top of my head, I can imagine several other variables that would be necessary to determine $t_c$: drainage density, basin relief, basin length, surface roughness (Mannings coefficient), and rainfall statistics. There's ...
Happened to come across a very fair list at the National Hurricane Center website giving the details of the models and ensembles they employ operationally. Had seen the basic list of what the models are many other places, basically almost anywhere the A-deck "spaghetti models" are shown... but not giving the details on topics like data assimilation/...
In seismic acquisition and processing rose plots are essential. Another way to think of these plots is "angular histograms." This article article shows rose plots for a subsurface point using this picture:.
What you are seeing in plots A,B, and C is the the azimuthal coverage of subsurface seismic ray paths for an "average" point in the survey. So in ...