Questions tagged [atmospheric-radiation]

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Interpretation of Mie scattering

I’m usually on Physics SE, but this question seems to fit better into Earth Sciences: I’m interested in radiation transfer and in particular Mie scattering in the atmosphere. So I did some calculation ...
4 votes
1 answer
126 views

Why is there a window in the absorption spectrum of Earth's atmosphere at a wavelength of 4 μm?

Looking at the Wikipedia page for absorption bands, it seems to me that there's a sizable window - i.e. a local minimum - in the graph for electromagnetic radiation absorption, as per the edited image ...
1 vote
0 answers
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Where does this refractive index formula come from: $n_{1} = n - 1 = \frac{77.6P}{T} 10^{-6}$

In this equation, $n_{1} = n - 1 = \frac{77.6P}{T} \cdot 10^{-6}$ the variable P is the total air pressure and T is expressed in Kelvin. This equation describes the refractive index of moist air as EM ...
4 votes
2 answers
86 views

How does water vapor cool the troposphere?

I have read about the Fixed Anvil Temperature (FAT) hypothesis and wonder why radiative cooling decreases with decreasing water vapor mixing ratio. Doesn't this stand in contrast with the fact, that ...
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How to translate irradiance measurements from MERRA-2 datasets to GHI, DNI and DHI?

can someone help me make sense of the MERRA2_400.tavg1_2d_rad_ datasets? I want to know the global horizontal irradiance (GHI), the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and the diffuse horizontal irradiance ...
6 votes
0 answers
83 views

What exactly causes this moving orange glow before sunrise?

I've been watching twilights for some time, and noticed that each time there's a very clear sky, an orange-pinkish glow is visible at the solar azimuth when Sun is somewhere between 1° and 5.5° below ...
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5 votes
1 answer
181 views

How to calculate the back radiation from greenhouse gases?

How would one go about calculating the value for back radiation(324 in this diagram) if it wasn't provided. According to this website, it is "equivalent to 100 percent of the incoming solar ...
4 votes
2 answers
248 views

How much would 5 gigatons of methane warm the atmosphere compared to 5 gigatons of CO2 if both were released in one go?

I don't know much about science, I'm just curious about how much warming a certain amount of CH4 would cause compared to a similar amount of CO2 (both 5 GtC). I'm sorry if the question sounded a bit ...
5 votes
0 answers
220 views

Can the absorbtion of infrared around the 650 wavenumber in water be a substantial cause of converting that spectrum range into other spectra?

CO2 absorbs around the 15 microns wavelenght or wavenumber 650, and radiates in the same but also a somewhat wider range. However, the top layer of the oceans seem to also convert that spectrum range. ...
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2 answers
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Relationship between rainwater and solar radiation

I am an enthusiast in this area and reading some scientific articles on precipitation forecasting and solar irradiation, I was wondering if these two variables have any direct correlation or ...
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4 votes
1 answer
124 views

How to derive the total potential energy of the atmosphere?

In one of Lorenz’s paper (I mean the meteorologists Edward Lorenz), he stated that the total potential energy of the whole atmosphere $P + I$ (means the sum of potential energy and internal energy) is ...
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Flux density and albedo

To save the Earth, the surface of the Earth has been covered by silver foil. The foil has a albedo of 0.9. What is the flux density emitted from the surface of the Earth (assume temperature of 50 deg ...
5 votes
0 answers
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Why is the Regener-Pfotzer maximum (radiation in upper atmosphere) above central California?

The site https://spaceweather.com/ has a section called Space Weather Balloon Data which shows the image below and says: The data points in the graph above correspond to the peak of the Regener-...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Can Horizontal Radiation Fluxes Contribute to Net Column Heating?

I've noticed that in many papers it's common to assume the (daily or longer averaged) vertically integrated radiative heating can be expressed $F_z(\text{TOA})-F_z(\text{SURF})$, where $F_z$ is the ...
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1 answer
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Direct and Diffused component of shortwave radiation in ERA5 data

I am following the paper to calculate UTCI using ERA5 meteorological variables. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00484-020-01900-5?shared-article-renderer In the paper, the authors have ...
1 vote
2 answers
135 views

If I build a concrete surface on a 1km x 1km area and painted it black, will I create convection (updraft from ground)?

Providing there are low wind conditions and a clear sky, will the 1 km x 1 km black surface create an upward convention? Let’s say I were to do this at 60$^\circ$ N longitude in march month, the ...
3 votes
1 answer
130 views

How does Earth's thermal radiation into space vary by location and time of day?

CHEOPS (also 1, 2, 3) is a space telescope recently put in low Earth orbit to look for exoplanets around other stars. It uses a cooled detector array and so uses a heat shield to avoid thermal ...
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3 votes
0 answers
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How does extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere contribute to radiative forcing?

The CO2 absorption spectrum taken at 200 mmHg partial pressure, beam path length = 10 cm, resolution = 4 cm^-1 shows that light can only travel a couple hundred meters before being completely absorbed ...
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1 answer
879 views

Why is CO2 considered a greenhouse gas? Can you explain the principles? [closed]

I think the title says it all...
3 votes
0 answers
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How to convert solar radiation into equivalent evaporation

I have come across two (apparently) different equations for this purpose. One is mentioned in BASINS software code here $$Rad\_len [inday^{-1}] = \frac{SolRad[langleysday^{-1}]}{((597.3 - 0.57 * ...
2 votes
1 answer
111 views

Does depletion of Planck radiation intensity in the upper atmosphere mean that "CO2 has no impact on climate change"?

In his recent book, Rex J. Fleming asserts that "CO2 has no impact on climate change", or, as he summarizes on his website: There are now over a dozen books available on Amazon.com that point out ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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solar irradiance/radiation difference

I currently read a few papers and one of them stated to forecast solar irradiance using measures of solar radiation. I hope this question is not trivial as I'm actually from germany, but if there is a ...
-2 votes
1 answer
104 views

What portion of global warming is caused by radioactive CO2 produced from cosmic rays?

The Earth's magentic field has been weaking recently, and the sun's magnetic field has been weaking recently, and it is a known fact that when either of these magnetic fields weaken (let alone both of ...
4 votes
2 answers
706 views

Effective Temperature of a Planet and Surface Temperature due to Greenhouse Effect

The effective temperature of the Earth is roughly 12 °F (- 11 °C), which means that in thermal equilibrium when it is emitting as much radiation as it is absorbing, the distribution of wavelengths and ...
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1 answer
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What is brown carbon?

There is a lot of interest in brown carbon in the atmospheric science community these days. There is a paper in the journal, "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics" titled, "Black carbon or brown carbon? ...
4 votes
0 answers
52 views

Amount of scattered vs. direct UV light from the Sun

I was wondering about the common saying that on a sunny, cloud-free day, depending on location, you can get a sunburn even when spending the whole day in the shadows. Already our blue sky provides ...
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

How to calculate the solar radiation at any place, any time

The solar radiation is one of the important factors controlling the formation of $O_3$, and thereby impacting the levels of various secondary species in the atmosphere. However, in the campaign of ...
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2 votes
2 answers
693 views

How is surface pressure generally measured, and at what actual height?

In various atmospheric equations, surface pressure is one of the variables used. For example, in calculating the density of air or pressure-corrected relative optical air mass. How is surface pressure ...
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6 votes
2 answers
713 views

Why are solar longwave and terrestrial shortwave radiations neglected in radiation balance models?

For an assignment I was given the question: Explain why solar radiation is neglected in atmospheric “long wave” calculations and Earth radiation is neglected in atmospheric “short wave” calculations. ...
6 votes
2 answers
6k views

Why is ozone a greenhouse gas if it absorb UV radiation?

Ozone is considered a greenhouse gas, even though it absorbs shortwave (UV) radiation from the Sun, which does not fit with the definition for greenhouse gases, where they are supposed to: "absorbs ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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What is the difference between radiation balance and the global energy balance?

Looking at two diagrams below, they seem to depict the same system. How are they different? Why one is a radiation balance model and the other a global energy balance model? RADIATION BALANCE MODEL: ...
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1 answer
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Understanding a diagram of Earth's radiation balance

Trying to understand this image. Can someone tell me if I have the right reasoning here: Sun has 100% SW shooting to earth 30% of that 100% is reflected by clouds 70% remains Of that 70%, 45% of that ...
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1 answer
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Does being in the air provide any protection from an asteroid?

How does radiation and shock waves from a radioactive asteroid or atomic explosion disperse throughout Earth's atmosphere? Are there specific areas on Earth that are less likely to receive the shock ...
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Looking at the brightest parts of the image how would one find the blackbody curve and wavelength maximum using a radiance calculator?

Look at the brightest parts of the photo and use a radiance calculator to find the blackbody radiation curve (show the plot of the curve) and the wavelength of maximum emission. How do ...
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10 votes
2 answers
623 views

Why is the Earth's shadow blue?

After every sunset, once the sun is gone, I always enjoy seen the belt of venus rising in the other side, followed by the Earth's shadow. This is a picture I took (you will find better ones online). ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why a stratus cloud does not always reach all the way to the ground?

The surface of the ground at night cools down because of outgoing long-wave radiation. In my understanding the cooling of the surface also causes cooling of the adjacent air. If the air contains ...
3 votes
1 answer
736 views

How to calculate 3-hour flux values in ERA-Interim?

Referring to the post: https://www.myroms.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=3003 I understood how to calculate the slhf and sshf for 03, 06, 09 and 12 time steps. But I have values for 00, 15, 18 ...
3 votes
1 answer
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How would this experiment's different particle types produce atmospheric reflectivity?

The MIT Technology Review news item Harvard Scientists Moving Ahead on Plans for Atmospheric Geoengineering Experiments discusses a proposed experiment to study in a carefully controlled way the ...
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5 votes
4 answers
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Gases that are nearly transparent to solar AND thermal radiation?

I've been curious about if there are any gases in the atmosphere that are nearly transparent to both solar and thermal radiation. CO2 for instance is nearly transparent to solar radiation but is ...
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1 answer
1k views

Why is it colder in the mountains than at sea level?

I have heard numerous reasons why that is. I just want to know which one is right.
4 votes
2 answers
212 views

Are we changing Earth's weather with global warming?

I think that when the air heats up in the day, the radiation from the ground contributes way more to its heating at altitudes more than 300 meters above the ground than convection currents of air heat ...
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6 votes
2 answers
7k views

How much and what kind of radiation passes through a cloud?

I've read that 80% of sunlight is passing through clouds. Now there a small clouds and big clouds so it should be some average. Is this true or is the amount of sunlight passing throug a cloud really ...
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3 votes
3 answers
391 views

What are the major contributors to the amount of infra-red emitted by the earth?

From the answers from an earlier question, I learned that most of the solar radiation gained by the earth system (atmosphere, surface, and inner mass) is re-radiated back into space in the form of ...
2 votes
2 answers
248 views

Why doesn't the earth become superheated?

One day I was sitting in an Atlanta traffic jam wondering about all the engine exhaust heat warming the localised environment. Later that night, things will have cooled down. Where did the heat go? ...
0 votes
2 answers
469 views

What is the intensity of terrestrial radiation? [closed]

I wanted to know what's is the intensity of terrestrial radiation? I mean the long wave radiation emitted by Earth & its atmosphere. As, I was differentiating between solar radiation and ...
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16 votes
2 answers
9k views

Is spectrum of sunlight the same in the summer as in the winter?

Of course we receive less sunlight in winter, because the sun is lower in the sky, so the light has to travel through more atmosphere, and loses strength. Does this mean that the blue light is more ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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What is radiation divergence?

What is radiation divergence, in the context of atmospheric physics? For example, the phrase is used in this paper.
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1 answer
357 views

Why does the road appear wet on a sunny day?

Whenever I'm travelling by road on a hot sunny day and I look towards the horizon, it appears as though there is puddle ahead but as I approach it, it disappears. Why does this happen?
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4 votes
1 answer
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What causes aurorae?

I know that aurorae are caused by solar activity interacting with the Earth's magnetic field as charged particles are funneled down into the polar magnetic mirrors. On one hand, I know that as ...
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1 answer
317 views

What would a planet's sky look like with different chemical compositions, such as low nitrogen, high methane etc?

What are the processes, chemicals and particles involved in creating colour in a planet's sky? Could you give some examples of sky colour processes different from what happens on Earth?